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201007W (LIONROCK 獅子山) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on September 11, 2010; final version issued on September 19, 2010)
(初稿於 2010 年 9 月 11 日發出,最後版本於 9 月 19 日上載)

Brief profile of LIONROCK 獅子山小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 07W
International number 國際編號 1006
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2010/08/27 14 HKT - 2010/09/02 08 HKT*
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 5.75 days 日*
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 55 knots 節 (Severe Tropical Storm 強烈熱帶風暴)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 982 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
1 (Standby Signal 戒備信號) (Twice 兩次)
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
1st approach 第一次接近: SE 280 km (real-time warning 實時警告)
2nd approach 第二次接近: NW/NNW 150 km (real-time warning 實時警告) / NNW 150 km (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
1st approach 第一次接近: 2010/08/29-30 19-04 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告)
2nd approach 第二次接近: 2010/09/03 10-16 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告) / 14 HKT (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
1001.6 hPa 百帕 (2010/08/30 16:57 HKT)

*The JTWC issued final warning as LIONROCK made landfall, and dissipation occurred later. JTWC 於獅子山登陸後立即發出最後報告,但當時獅子山仍未消散。

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動方向和速度
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2010/08/29 (SUN) 10:35 HKT
SE 340 km
NNW at 10 km/h
65 km/h (35 knots, TS)
2010/08/30 (MON) 19:10 HKT
ESE 350 km
E Slowly
85 km/h (45 knots, TS)
2010/09/02 (THU) 20:40 HKT
NNE 210 km
W at 18 km/h
65 km/h (35 knots, TS)
2010/09/03 (FRI) 16:40 HKT
NW 150 km
W/WSW at 10 km/h
45 km/h (25 knots, TD)

Figure 圖:

(Track courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC track from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on LIONROCK 本站有關獅子山的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on LIONROCK. 請按這裡

Storm Formation and Development 氣旋形成和發展

LIONROCK is one of the rare storms that affected Hong Kong twice in its lifetime.

An area of low pressure persisted off the coast of Luzon near the end of August. This low pressure gathered strength gradually and was upgraded into the seventh tropical depression in the Northwest Pacific this year by the JTWC at 14 HKT on August 27. At that time, the western edge of the subtropical ridge was at about 120°E, and did not extend to the west as much possibly due to an arriving trough and the existence of another low pressure area in the East China Sea. 07W was expected to move north and would decelerate as it reached 20°N due to reduction in net force from the ridges.

As 07W was in the western periphery of the ridge, it travelled northward at a moderate pace. The system's cloud bands were very disorganized in the next 24 hours, making location of its centre difficult. 07W was relocated to a eastern position in the morning of August 28 as a result. The Hong Kong Observatory upgraded 07W into a tropical depression at 13 HKT as its structure started to improve. The HKO predicted that 07W would linger in the northern part of the South China Sea as it was expected to decelerate while moving north. Meanwhile, numerical forecasts called for a rapid increase in 07W's strength in the following few days, and in one model run ECMWF even put 07W very close to Hong Kong as a typhoon for an extended period of time.

Clouds developed near the Pearl River Delta near noon on August 28 and heavy rain affected Hong Kong that afternoon. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was issued at 14:15 HKT and lasted for 1 hour 35 minutes.

A new round of bursts occurred in the night between August 28 and 29. The JMA upgraded 07W into a tropical storm at 02 HKT on August 29 as convections started to distribute more evenly across the system, and named it LIONROCK. This name was contributed by Hong Kong and is the name of a peak in the territory (this name was selected in the tropical cyclone naming contest held by the Observatory in 2005 to replace its predecessor, TINGTING). LIONROCK moved northwest in the night, and almost reached 116°E by daybreak.

The HKO started to predict erratic tracks for LIONROCK - moving NE at first then back to NW. This turned out to be true in the end, but at a much larger scale. By that time LIONROCK had already passed 20°N, and it finally showed signs of deceleration. For the rest of the day it stayed between 20°N and 21°N and did not strengthen much.

獅子山是少數一生內影響香港兩次的熱帶氣旋。

一個低壓區於 8 月下旬在呂宋對開海域形成。它逐漸增強,於 8 月 27 日下午 2 時被 JTWC 升格為熱帶低氣壓 07W。那時,副熱帶高壓脊西沿只到達東經 120 度,這可能是因為西風槽的影響且有另一低壓區在東海一帶。07W 當時預計會向北移動,並在到達北緯 20 度時由於淨力減低而減速。

由於 07W 在副高西面,它以中等速度向北前進。07W 的雲帶於此後 24 小時仍然較為鬆散,定位相對困難。07W 於 8 月 28 日早上被重新定位至較東的位置。隨著結構改善,香港天文台於當天下午 1 時將其升格為熱帶低氣壓。天文台當時預測 07W 將向北移動,後期將減慢並於南海北部徘徊。與此同時,部分數值模式預計 07W 將快速增強;ECMWF (歐洲中期天氣預報中心) 更於一預報預計 07W 將以颱風強度在香港以南徘徊一段頗長的時間。

在 07W 北移的同時,雲帶於 8 月 28 日中午在珠江口一帶發展起來,並為香港帶來大雨。天文台遂於當天下午 2 時 15 分發出黃色暴雨警告,維持 1 小時 35 分鐘。

新一輪的對流爆發於 8 月 28 日晚至 29 日清晨出現,而 07W 的雲帶分布逐漸變得平均。日本氣象廳於 8 月 29 日上午 2 時升格 07W 為熱帶風暴,並將其命名為獅子山。該名稱由香港提供,為一山峰的名稱 (獅子山一名於天文台在 2005 年舉辦的熱帶氣旋命名比賽中突圍而出,用來替代同一位置的名稱婷婷)。獅子山於當時向西北移動,在日出時差不多到達東經 116 度。

天文台於這時開始預測獅子山的路徑將較為不規則 - 先向東北移再轉向西北。此預報最終成真,但規模大得多。8 月 29 日早上獅子山到達北緯 20 度,並開始減速;在當天餘下時間獅子山處於北緯 20 至 21 度間,且未有大幅增強。

Figure 1 - JTWC's forecast track at 14 HKT, August 27
圖 1 - 8 月 27 日下午 2 時 JTWC 預測路徑圖

Figure 2 - Steering flow at 14 HKT, August 27
圖 2 - 8 月 27 日下午 2 時的駛流圖

Figure 3 - Satellite imagery at 14 HKT, August 27
圖 3 - 8 月 27 日下午 2 時之衛星雲圖

Figure 4 - Forecast tracks by various agencies in the afternoon of August 29
圖 4 - 各大氣象台於 8 月 29 日下午的預報路徑

Interactions with NAMTHEUN 與南川的相互影響

The HKO upgraded LIONROCK into a tropical storm at 10 HKT on August 29, and issued the #1 Standby Signal at 10:35 HKT as it was close enough to merit public attention. LIONROCK was situated 340 km southeast of Hong Kong at that time. LIONROCK started to gain longitude that afternoon, possibly as a result of the strengthening of the equatorial anticyclone which provided LIONROCK with northeastern movement.

LIONROCK gradually intensified but kept drifting away from Hong Kong. The Observatory cancelled the Standby Signal at 19:10 HKT on August 30 as it was deemed not to constitute a significant threat to the territory in the near future.

At about the same time, a tropical depression developed north of Taiwan and was later named NAMTHEUN by the JMA. NAMTHEUN flourished in a hostile environment - apart from the proximity to land it was also close to LIONROCK (and later it was also close to KOMPASU, another cyclone that approached from the east). The two started Fujiwhara interaction starting on August 30, and LIONROCK acquired southward track component as a result. LIONROCK's convections further expanded and was upgraded into a severe tropical storm by the JMA at 14 HKT that day. This was followed by the HKO 8 hours later.

NAMTHEUN, though being a moderate tropical storm at its peak, succumbed to the increasingly unfavourable environment as it moved closer to LIONROCK along the Taiwan Strait. LIONROCK absorbed the remnants of NAMTHEUN and, without the interaction of it, ceased to lose latitude. LIONROCK was once again under the influence of the subtropical ridge to the east and moved north in the night of August 31.

LIONROCK's speed increased and passed Hong Kong's latitude (22.3°N) in the morning of September 1. From Taiwan's RADAR LIONROCK's centre became more organized during that day. As KOMPASU moved away the ridge was able to extend westward; this drastically turned LIONROCK's forward direction from the north to the west-northwest in less than 12 hours' time.

天文台於 8 月 29 日上午 10 時升格獅子山為熱帶風暴,並於上午 10 時 35 分發出一號戒備信號。當時獅子山處於香港東南約 340 公里,距離足以引起大眾關注。在下午,獅子山開始有緯度上的增加,這可能是由於赤道反氣旋增強,為獅子山帶來東北移動分量。

獅子山逐步增強,但繼續移離香港。由於獅子山於短期內威脅香港的機會降低,天文台於翌日下午 7 時 10 分取消該戒備信號

在差不多同一時間,一熱帶低氣壓在台灣以北形成,隨後被日本氣象廳命名為南川。雖然南川既靠近陸地且受到獅子山影響 (隨後另一熱帶氣旋圓規由東面移近),它仍能在此惡劣環境下增強至熱帶風暴強度。南川與獅子山於 8 月 30 日發生藤原效應,獅子山的路徑因而開始出現向南分量。獅子山的對流再度擴展,於當天下午 2 時被日本氣象廳升格為強烈熱帶風暴;天文台於 8 小時後跟隨

隨著附近環境變得更為惡劣,南川於台灣海峽逐步解體,其環流被獅子山吸收。由於南川的影響消失,獅子山的緯度有所增加,在副高帶領下於 8 月 31 日晚向北移動。

獅子山前進速度加快,於 9 月 1 日到達香港的緯度 (北緯 22.3 度)。由台灣的雷達圖可見,獅子山的中心變得較有組織。當天圓規移離東海,副高西伸,這令獅子山的前進方向在 12 小時內由偏北急劇轉為西北偏西。

Figure 5 - Wind distribution chart at about 21 HKT, August 30
圖 5 - 8 月 30 日約下午 9 時之風場圖

Figure 6 - Satellite image showing all three storms. They are (from left) LIONROCK, NAMTHEUN and KOMPASU.
圖 6 - 這張衛星雲圖顯示當時存在的三個氣旋,從左至右為獅子山、南川和圓規

Figure 7 - Steering flow at 14 HKT, August 31
圖 7 - 8 月 31 日下午 2 時的駛流圖

Figures 8a to 8c - RADAR images from Taiwan's CWB at 00 HKT, 12 HKT on September 1 and 00 HKT on September 2
圖 8a 至 8c - 台灣中央氣象台於 9 月 1 日零時、正午和 9 月 2 日零時之雷達圖

LIONROCK's Second Approach 獅子山的再度接近

According to the CMA, LIONROCK made landfall at Zhangpu, Fujian Province at 06:50 HKT on September 2 as a tropical storm (while HKO kept it as a severe tropical storm at that time). It travelled inland and gradually lost intensity, but its threat to Hong Kong actually increased as it entered Guangdong Province and edged closer to the territory. As a result, the #1 Standby Signal was re-issued at 20:40 HKT that night, when LIONROCK was 210 km NNE of Hong Kong.

LIONROCK induced southwesterly airstream and occasional heavy rain was observed in the territory on September 3. Nevertheless, without the supply of enough moisture LIONROCK finally weakened into an area of low pressure at about 17 HKT (according to the Observatory) that day. As a result, the Standby Signal was lifted at 16:40 HKT, when LIONROCK was near its closest approach to the territory, at just 150 km to the northwest.

Rain continued to affect Hong Kong and many parts of the territory picked up winds that night. In response, the Observatory issued the Strong Monsoon Signal at 00:15 HKT the next day, and was cancelled at 07:45 HKT when winds finally subsided.

根據中國氣象局的資料,獅子山於 9 月 2 日上午 6 時 50 分在福建漳浦登陸,強度為熱帶風暴 (而天文台則保持其強烈熱帶風暴強度)。它於內陸前進,並逐漸減弱。然而,由於它向偏西移動並進入廣東省,它對香港的威脅再度增加。天文台因此於當晚 8 時 40 分再次發出一號戒備信號,當時獅子山處於香港東北偏北約 210 公里處。

獅子山為沿岸地區引進西南氣流,本港於 9 月 3 日下起大雨。縱然如此,由於濕氣並不足夠,獅子山終於在約下午 5 時減弱為低壓區 (根據天文台資料)。天文台於下午 4 時 40 分取消一號戒備信號,當時獅子山差不多最接近香港,在本港西北約 150 公里。

香港繼續受大雨影響,多處風勢於當晚加強。天文台於 9 月 4 日凌晨零時 15 分發出強烈季候風信號;該信號於早上 7 時 45 分解除

Figure 9 - RADAR image showing LIONROCK traversing Guangdong at 17:30 HKT, September 2
圖 9 - 9 月 2 日下午 5 時 30 分之雷達圖像,顯示獅子山正橫過廣東

Figures 10a to 10c - HKO's RADAR images at 17 HKT on September 2, 05 and 17 HKT on September 3.
圖 10a 至 10c - 9 月 2 日下午 5 時、9 月 3 日上午和下午 5 時之雷達圖

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

(Except for special cases, this section is not available for cyclones that only necessitated the Standby Signal 除非特別情況,否則此部只當氣旋令天文台發出三號或更高信號時提供)

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
10082700 152N1178E 020
10082706 153N1175E 025
10082712 157N1171E 030
10082718 165N1179E 030
10082800 175N1175E 030
10082806 182N1172E 030
10082812 188N1168E 035
10082818 192N1163E 035
10082900 198N1162E 040
10082906 202N1161E 040
10082912 206N1163E 040
10082918 207N1163E 040
10083000 208N1165E 045
10083006 209N1168E 050
10083012 210N1171E 055
10083018 208N1171E 055
10083100 204N1176E 055
10083106 205N1180E 055
10083112 208N1191E 050
10083118 215N1193E 050
10090100 223N1195E 050
10090106 229N1192E 055
10090112 231N1189E 055
10090118 235N1183E 055
10090200 239N1173E 050
10090206 242N1162E 040
10090212 240N1152E 035
10090218 239N1144E 030
10090300 237N1137E 025
10090306 234N1134E 025
10090312 232N1130E 020

Table 2: Maximum gust and 60-minute average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高 60 分鐘平均風力和陣風數據

First passage 第一次接近

Station
Maximum Gust
Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction
Speed (km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Direction
Speed (km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Central Pier
W
40
30/8
15:23
W
22
30/8
15:00
Cheung Chau
NNW
34
30/8
07:17
SE
23
29/8
19:00
Cheung Chau Beach
ENE
34
30/8
07:40
ESE
19
29/8
19:00
Cheung Sha Wan
SW
27
30/8
14:14
SW
13
30/8
15:00
Green Island
NNW
38
30/8
08:46
NNW
25
30/8
07:00
Hong Kong International Airport
ESE
47
29/8
17:31
NW
23
29/8
15:00
Kai Tak
ESE
41
29/8
17:16
ESE
14
29/8
18:00
King's Park
N
27
29/8
13:54
N
13
29/8
11:00
Lau Fau Shan
WNW
31
30/8
15:08
NW
23
30/8
16:00
Ngong Ping
NE
76
29/8
17:43
ENE
30
30/8
10:00
North Point
ESE
30
29/8
16:53
WSW
19
30/8
15:00
E
30
29/8
17:21
Peng Chau
NW
36
30/8
15:03
NW
20
30/8
17:00
Ping Chau
NE
25
30/8
08:23
WNW
6
29/8
12:00
NNE
25
30/8
08:24
N
6
29/8
13:00
Sai Kung
E
45
29/8
16:58
NNE
20
29/8
14:00
Sha Chau
N
36
30/8
08:08
N
27
30/8
09:00
Sha Lo Wan
E
38
29/8
17:35
SW
14
29/8
18:00
Sha Tin
ESE
27
29/8
17:16
NE
12
29/8
14:00
Shek Kong
E
30
29/8
19:09
E
13
29/8
19:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon)
E
31
29/8
17:10
W
23
30/8
15:00
Ta Kwu Ling
E
31
29/8
18:22
E
13
29/8
19:00
Tai Mei Tuk
NE
36
30/8
09:42
NE
19
30/8
10:00
Tai Mo Shan
NNE
41
30/8
08:27
N
27
30/8
08:00
Tap Mun
E
43
29/8
16:03
ESE
19
29/8
17:00
Tsak Yue Wu
NE
31
29/8
16:13
NNE
16
29/8
14:00
Tseung Kwan O
NE
36
29/8
16:42
NNW
12
29/8
13:00
ENE
12
29/8
14:00
NE
12
29/8
15:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot
NW
31
29/8
13:17
NW
14
29/8
13:00
W
14
30/8
15:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices
E
40
29/8
17:08
WNW
14
30/8
17:00
Waglan Island
NE
47
29/8
16:57
N
23
30/8
09:00
Wetland Park
N
25
29/8
13:52
N
12
29/8
14:00
Wong Chuk Hang
WNW
34
30/8
14:22
WNW
14
30/8
15:00

Second passage 第二次接近

Station
Maximum Gust
Maximum Hourly MeanWind
Direction
Speed (km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Direction
Speed (km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Bluff Head (Stanley)
S
52
3/9
17:30
SSE
34
3/9
18:00
Central Pier
ESE
40
3/9
17:29
W
16
2/9
21:00
W
16
2/9
22:00
Cheung Chau
SE
49
3/9
19:23
SE
31
3/9
20:00
Cheung Chau Beach
W
40
2/9
21:39
W
25
2/9
22:00
Cheung Sha Wan
WSW
31
3/9
12:06
SW
13
3/9
13:00
Green Island
SSE
58
3/9
17:43
SSE
31
3/9
18:00
Hong Kong International Airport
SE
38
3/9
17:58
NW
31
2/9
21:00
Kai Tak
SSE
41
3/9
17:45
W
20
2/9
21:00
SE
20
3/9
18:00
King's Park
SSE
34
3/9
17:45
W
12
2/9
21:00
W
12
2/9
23:00
Lau Fau Shan
SE
40
3/9
18:19
SE
23
3/9
19:00
SSE
40
3/9
18:20
Ngong Ping
E
85
3/9
18:39
SW
45
3/9
14:00
North Point
W
38
3/9
01:27
WSW
22
2/9
21:00
Peng Chau
SSE
43
3/9
19:57
NW
23
2/9
21:00
Ping Chau
ESE
38
3/9
17:17
W
14
3/9
01:00
Sai Kung
SSE
49
3/9
17:48
S
31
3/9
18:00
Sha Chau
SSW
38
3/9
11:55
SSW
25
3/9
14:00
Sha Lo Wan
SE
40
3/9
18:22
S
16
3/9
17:00
Sha Tin
SW
38
3/9
18:10
SW
14
3/9
14:00
Shek Kong
SSE
30
3/9
17:15
S
7
3/9
13:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon)
ESE
31
3/9
17:05
W
16
2/9
22:00
ESE
31
3/9
17:06
Ta Kwu Ling
SE
27
3/9
18:31
SSE
9
3/9
19:00
Tai Mei Tuk
WSW
40
3/9
18:20
WSW
19
3/9
14:00
Tai Mo Shan
SSW
58
3/9
17:09
W
41
3/9
03:00
Tap Mun
SE
49
3/9
18:12
SSE
20
3/9
18:00
Tate's Cairn
SSW
62
3/9
17:48
S
36
3/9
18:00
Tsak Yue Wu
SSW
22
3/9
14:45
SSW
6
3/9
15:00
Tseung Kwan O
WSW
23
3/9
17:57
SSW
9
3/9
09:00
SSW
9
3/9
15:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot
SE
40
3/9
17:50
SSE
14
3/9
13:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices
SE
41
3/9
18:00
SSE
14
3/9
13:00
SE
14
3/9
18:00
Waglan Island
SSW
76
3/9
06:56
SSE
47
3/9
18:00
Wetland Park
SSE
27
3/9
18:12
SSE
9
3/9
13:00
SSE
9
3/9
15:00
S
9
3/9
19:00
Wong Chuk Hang
NE
31
3/9
17:19
WNW
13
2/9
21:00

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by LIONROCK from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station
29-Aug
30-Aug
31-Aug
1-Sep
2-Sep
3-Sep
Total
Hong Kong Observatory
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
16.2
47.4
63.6
Cheung Chau (CCH)
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
64.0
65.5
Hong Kong International Airport (HKA)
14.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
123.1
139.5
N05 Fanling
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[0.0]
[52.0]
[52.0]
N13 High Island
4.5
3.5
0.0
0.0
[1.5]
[39.0]
[48.5]
K04 Jordan Valley
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[0.0]
[61.0]
[61.0]
N06 Kwai Chung
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[4.0]
[94.0]
[98.0]
H12 Mid Levels
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[2.5]
[68.5]
[71.0]
H21 Repulse Bay
0.0
0.0
4.0
0.0
[3.0]
[65.0]
[72.0]
N09 Sha Tin
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.5
[0.0]
[55.5]
[61.0]
H19 Shau Kei Wan
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[5.0]
45.5
[51.5]
SEK Shek Kong
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[2.5]
33.0
[35.5]
K06 So Uk Estate
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
[4.5]
[83.0]
[87.5]
R31 Tai Mei Tuk
0.0
0.0
4.0
0.0
0.5
59.5
64.0
R21 Tap Shek Kok
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
105.0
105.5
N17 Tung Chung
5.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
[0.5]
[159.0]
[165.0]
R27 Yuen Long
8.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
[1.0]
[54.5]
[64.0]

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