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TC Watch / 熱帶氣旋 > Selected TC Review / 重要熱帶氣旋回顧 > 201104W (SONGDA 桑達) [Refresh 更新]

201104W (SONGDA 桑達) - Profile 檔案

(Issued on June 5, 2011)
(於 2011 年 6 月 5 日發出)

Brief profile of SONGDA 桑達小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 04W
International number 國際編號 1102
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2011/05/20 14 HKT - 2011/05/29 20 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 9.25 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 140 knots 節 (Category 5 Super Typhoon 五級超級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 918 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
N/A 不適用
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
N/A 不適用

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on SONGDA 本站有關桑達的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on SONGDA. 請按這裡

Storm Summary 氣旋摘要

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

SONGDA is the second named storm in northwestern Pacific Ocean this year, and is the first to attain category 5 strength.

An area of low pressure developed around 600 km east of Yap in the middle of May. The low pressure acquired strength and was upgraded into tropical depression 04W by the JTWC at 14 HKT on May 20. At that time, numerical model forecasts had already been consistent in depicting a recurvature east of the Philippines, which turned out to be the true outcome. The storm developed slowly at first due to hindered divergence, and the JTWC revised their past track storm intensity downward on the next day (May 21) as the storm failed to organize, especially in the northern semicircle.

04W was at that time south of the steering subtropical ridge, and a persistent WNW track was expected. The cyclone gathered strength on May 21 and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded it into a tropical storm at 02 HKT on May 22, naming it SONGDA. The name was provided by Vietnam, which is the name of a river in the northern part of the country.

SONGDA continued to remain at low latitudes in the next couple of days. Forecasts made by major official agencies were very consistent, putting the storm on an increasingly poleward track towards the seas just east of Luzon. As divergence improved, SONGDA gradually intensified into a severe tropical storm later on May 22. Intensification slowed down again and SONGDA did not gain strength significantly in the next two days. An eye finally popped out in satellite imagery on May 25, which prompted agencies to upgrade SONGDA into a typhoon. Still, SONGDA was only expected to intensify gradually and the JTWC was estimating a peak strength of 125 knots (232 km/h) to be attained on May 27.

After maintaining its coverage for an extended period of time, the subtropical ridge finally showed signs of retreat as waves of midlatitude troughs attacked it from the north. SONGDA made a sharp NW turn on May 25, perhaps compensating the overly westward track during the previous day. SONGDA's circulation became more symmetrical as time passed, and a central dense overcast could be identified clearly on satellite images. It attained category 4 status in the small hours of May 26, and then deepened into category 5 in the afternoon when it was about 300 km east of Luzon. At its peak, the JTWC estimated SONGDA's intensity to be 140 knots (260 km/h), while the JMA and HKO's (10-minute average) estimates were 105 knots (195 km/h) and 110 knots (205 km/h) respectively.

By May 27, SONGDA was already situated at the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, and was accelerating slightly towards the north. SONGDA's eyewall cloud-top temperatures rose, signaling a weakening trend. It weakened into a category 4 super typhoon by daybreak. Clouds thickened near the eye, although still clearly visible. SONGDA turned NNE as it crossed the Luzon Strait. Although not hit directly by SONGDA, a sea warning was issued in Taiwan to alert citizens there about the rough waves and squalls near the eastern coast.

SONGDA accelerated rapidly towards the NE on May 28 as it skirted Okinawa. Heightening vertical wind shear started to affect SONGDA's core structure, and it weakened significantly during the day. SONGDA finally turned into an extratropical cyclone as it reached the southern coast of Honshu, Japan.

桑達是本年西北太平洋第二個被命名的熱帶氣旋,且是第一個到達五級強度的颱風。

一個低壓區於五月中旬在雅蒲島以東約 600 公里發展。該低壓區逐漸增強,在 5 月 20 日下午 2 時被聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 升格為熱帶低氣壓 04W。與此同時,多個數值預報模式均一致預測 04W 將於菲律賓以東轉向,而最後此預測亦如期實現。由於輻散被限制,04W 初期發展速度緩慢,JTWC 更於翌日 (21 日) 將其最佳路徑強度下調。04W 未能有效地組織起來,北半圓情況更甚。

04W 當時處於副熱帶高壓脊以南,穩定地向西北偏西移動。它於 21 日增強為熱帶風暴,被日本氣象廳 (JMA) 命名為桑達。此名由越南提供,為該國北部一條河流的名字。

桑達於未來數天緯度增加不多。各大氣象台的預測亦頗為一致,即桑達將於呂宋以東轉北。隨著輻散轉好,桑達於 22 日增強為強烈熱帶風暴。其後桑達增強速度再度放緩,兩天內只增強少許。風眼最終在 25 日形成,氣象台均將其升格為颱風。當時預料桑達將只會逐步增強,JTWC 估計它將於 27 日達到顛峰強度 125 節 (每小時 232 公里)。

副高於過去數天呈現強勢,但終在多道西風槽侵擊下開始減弱。桑達於 25 日突然轉向西北移動,或許是對前一天的偏西路徑作出調節。隨著時間過去,桑達的環流變得更為對稱,中心密集雲區於衛星圖片上清楚可見。它在 28 日凌晨達到四級颱風強度,繼而在當天下午於呂宋以東約 300 公里的海面上增強為五級超級颱風。聯合颱風警報中心、日本氣象廳和香港天文台分別估計桑達的巔峰強度為 140、105 和 110 節 (即每小時 260、195 和 205 公里)。

桑達於 27 日處於副高西沿,向偏北加速移動。桑達的眼牆雲頂溫度開始升高,揭示其減弱之勢。它於破曉時份減弱為四級超級颱風。風眼附近雲量增多,但仍能於衛星圖片上清晰見到。桑達在橫過呂宋海峽時轉向東北偏北移動。雖然它並未正面吹襲台灣,該地亦對其發出海上颱風警報,以警示居民東岸有大浪和狂風。

其後,桑達於 28 日加速向東北移動,掠過沖繩島。垂直風切變上升破壞桑達的中心結構,因而它於當天快速減弱。桑達最後在到達日本本州南部時演變為溫帶氣旋。

Figures 圖片

Figure 1 - Steering flow chart at 14 HKT on May 22
圖 1 - 5 月 22 日下午 2 時之駛流場圖

Figure 2 - Official forecast tracks at 14 HKT on May 23
圖 2 - 5 月 23 日下午 2 時
之官方預測路徑

Figure 3 - Wind field at 08 HKT on May 26
圖 3 - 5 月 26 日上午 8 時
之風場圖

Figures 4a and 4b - SONGDA at peak intensity. Its eye is very clear on these colour-enhanced infrared images
圖 4a 及 4b - 桑達接近巔峰強度時的衛星圖片。桑達的風眼在這兩張色調強化紅外線雲圖上清晰可見

Figure 5 - Calculated wind field at 08 HKT on May 27
圖 5 - 5 月 27 日上午 8 時
之估算風場圖

Figure 6 - SONGDA turning into an extratropical cyclone
圖 6 - 桑達正轉化為溫帶氣旋

Other Data 其他數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
11051918 080N1425E 020
11052000 081N1420E 025
11052006 084N1416E 030
11052012 085N1410E 035
11052018 087N1395E 030
11052100 088N1388E 030
11052106 089N1385E 030
11052112 091N1380E 035
11052118 091N1375E 040
11052200 095N1370E 045
11052206 100N1365E 045
11052212 102N1359E 050
11052218 105N1350E 055
11052300 109N1340E 055
11052306 112N1330E 055
11052312 117N1322E 055
11052318 118N1315E 055
11052400 120N1310E 060
11052406 124N1301E 065
11052412 126N1293E 065
11052418 123N1285E 075
11052500 124N1281E 090
11052506 127N1278E 105
11052512 132N1274E 105
11052518 139N1272E 115
11052600 147N1265E 120
11052606 156N1258E 130
11052612 162N1251E 140
11052618 172N1244E 140
11052700 182N1239E 130
11052706 193N1234E 130
11052712 204N1231E 125
11052718 216N1232E 115
11052800 231N1238E 105
11052806 248N1250E 090
11052812 266N1266E 085
11052818 286N1292E 075
11052900 307N1316E 065
11052906 330N1341E 050
11052912 344N1366E 040

Table 2: Track data from JTWC:
表二 : 聯合颱風警報中心之路徑資料

ID      Name   YYMMDD ZZZZ  Lat    Long   Basin Wind Pres
04W     SONGDA 110529 1800  34.6N  137.5E WPAC   25  1001
04W SONGDA 110529 1200 34.4N 136.6E WPAC 30 1000
04W SONGDA 110529 0600 32.8N 134.2E WPAC 50 985
04W SONGDA 110529 0000 30.6N 131.7E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110529 0000 30.6N 131.7E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110528 1800 28.6N 129.2E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110528 1800 28.6N 129.2E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110528 1200 26.6N 126.8E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 1200 26.6N 126.8E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 1200 26.6N 126.8E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 0600 24.9N 125.1E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 0600 24.9N 125.1E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 0600 24.9N 125.1E WPAC 75 967
04W SONGDA 110528 0000 23.1N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110528 0000 23.1N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110528 0000 23.1N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110527 1800 21.6N 123.2E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110527 1800 21.6N 123.2E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110527 1800 21.6N 123.2E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110527 1200 20.5N 123.1E WPAC 125 929
04W SONGDA 110527 1200 20.5N 123.1E WPAC 125 929
04W SONGDA 110527 1200 20.5N 123.1E WPAC 125 929
04W SONGDA 110527 0600 19.3N 123.3E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110527 0600 19.3N 123.3E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110527 0600 19.3N 123.3E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110527 0000 18.2N 123.9E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110527 0000 18.2N 123.9E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110527 0000 18.2N 123.9E WPAC 130 926
04W SONGDA 110526 1800 17.2N 124.4E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 1800 17.2N 124.4E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 1800 17.2N 124.4E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 1200 16.3N 125.1E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 1200 16.3N 125.1E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 1200 16.3N 125.1E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 0600 15.6N 125.8E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 0600 15.6N 125.8E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 0600 15.6N 125.8E WPAC 140 918
04W SONGDA 110526 0000 14.6N 126.6E WPAC 120 933
04W SONGDA 110526 0000 14.6N 126.6E WPAC 120 933
04W SONGDA 110526 0000 14.6N 126.6E WPAC 120 933
04W SONGDA 110525 1800 13.8N 127.1E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110525 1800 13.8N 127.1E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110525 1800 13.8N 127.1E WPAC 115 937
04W SONGDA 110525 1200 13.2N 127.5E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 1200 13.2N 127.5E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 1200 13.2N 127.5E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 0600 12.7N 127.9E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 0600 12.7N 127.9E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 0600 12.7N 127.9E WPAC 105 944
04W SONGDA 110525 0000 12.2N 128.3E WPAC 90 956
04W SONGDA 110525 0000 12.2N 128.3E WPAC 90 956
04W SONGDA 110525 0000 12.2N 128.3E WPAC 90 956
04W SONGDA 110524 1800 12.2N 128.7E WPAC 80 963
04W SONGDA 110524 1800 12.2N 128.7E WPAC 80 963
04W SONGDA 110524 1800 12.2N 128.7E WPAC 80 963
04W SONGDA 110524 1200 12.2N 129.3E WPAC 70 970
04W SONGDA 110524 1200 12.2N 129.3E WPAC 70 970
04W SONGDA 110524 1200 12.2N 129.3E WPAC 70 970
04W SONGDA 110524 0600 12.1N 130.1E WPAC 65 974
04W SONGDA 110524 0600 12.1N 130.1E WPAC 65 974
04W SONGDA 110524 0000 12.0N 130.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110524 0000 12.0N 130.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 1800 11.7N 131.5E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 1800 11.7N 131.5E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 1200 11.4N 132.1E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 1200 11.4N 132.1E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 0600 11.2N 132.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 0600 11.2N 132.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 0000 10.9N 133.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110523 0000 10.9N 133.9E WPAC 60 978
04W SONGDA 110522 1800 10.6N 134.8E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110522 1800 10.6N 134.8E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110522 1200 10.3N 135.7E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110522 1200 10.3N 135.7E WPAC 55 982
04W SONGDA 110522 0600 10.0N 136.4E WPAC 50 985
04W SONGDA 110522 0000 9.8N 136.9E WPAC 45 989
04W SONGDA 110521 1800 9.6N 137.3E WPAC 40 993
04W SONGDA 110521 1200 9.4N 137.7E WPAC 35 996
04W SONGDA 110521 0600 9.1N 138.1E WPAC 30 1000
04W SONGDA 110521 0000 8.8N 138.6E WPAC 30 1000
04W SONGDA 110520 1800 8.7N 139.0E WPAC 30 1000
04W SONGDA 110520 1200 8.6N 139.6E WPAC 30 1000
04W SONGDA 110520 0600 8.5N 140.2E WPAC 25 1004
04W SONGDA 110520 0000 8.5N 140.7E WPAC 20 1006
04W SONGDA 110519 1800 8.4N 141.3E WPAC 15 1007
04W SONGDA 110519 1200 8.1N 142.1E WPAC 15 1010
04W SONGDA 110519 0600 8.0N 142.6E WPAC 15 1010
04W SONGDA 110519 0000 7.9N 142.9E WPAC 15 1010
04W SONGDA 110518 1800 7.9N 143.2E WPAC 15 1010
04W SONGDA 110518 1200 7.8N 143.6E WPAC 15 1010

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Mon Aug 26 2019 02:14:01 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Dec 24 2013

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