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TC Watch / 熱帶氣旋 > Selected TC Review / 重要熱帶氣旋回顧 > 201217W (SANBA 三巴) [Refresh 更新]

201217W (SANBA 三巴) - Profile 檔案

(Issued on September 22, 2012)
(於 2012 年 9 月 22 日發出)

Brief profile of SANBA 三巴小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 17W
International number 國際編號 1216
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2012/09/11 02 HKT - 2012/09/17 14 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 6.50 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 150 knots 節 (Category 5 Super Typhoon 五級超級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 911 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
N/A 不適用
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
N/A 不適用

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on SANBA 本站有關三巴的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on SANBA. 請按這裡

Storm Summary 氣旋摘要

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

SANBA is the first category 5 super typhoon in 2012.

It seems reasonable that SANBA's strength might have been partly boosted by the long period of silence in the northwestern Pacific Ocean after the previous storm BOLAVEN transformed into an extratropical cyclone near the end of August, allowing the ocean to regain energy. SANBA developed as a tropical disturbance near Yap and moved to north of Palau on September 10. It was upgraded into tropical depression 17W by the JTWC early on September 11. Just 6 hours later, the JMA upgraded 17W into a tropical storm and named it SANBA. This name was contributed by Macau and is the Chinese colloquial name of the Ruins of St. Paul's. SANBA replaced the name CHANCHU at the same position. Back in 2006, CHANCHU produced a rare track in the South China Sea and became the strongest May storm in that region. The name was retired for its widespread damage in the Philippines, Vietnam and China.

At SANBA's formation, the subtropical ridge was almost north-south oriented and situated to the its northeast. There was a weak ridge near Taiwan that was expected to weaken. SANBA was thus predicted to be guided by the subtropical ridge and move NNW across the northwest Pacific. Model outputs were consistent and predictions from various agencies agreed to great extent. Regarding its intensity, SANBA's circulation was close to symmetrical even during the initial stage as vertical wind shear was not strong. Coupled with good ventilation channels and high sea temperatures, SANBA intensified steadily in the first two days, attaining severe tropical storm status on September 12 and typhoon on September 13.

SANBA's rapid intensification commenced on September 13. Its central dense overcast expanded in size and a clear eye emerged from the centre in the morning. The eye expanded in size and cleared near noon. The intensification continued throughout the day and as a result agencies revised their strength estimations upwards rapidly during the day. The JTWC estimate was 75 knots at 2 am on September 13 and 90 knots at 8 am. This was followed by a 25-knot increment at 2 pm and a further 20-knot at 8 pm, bringing the storm to an intensity of 135 knots. As the storm matured, the 2 am bulletin on September 14 saw SANBA reach peak strength at an estimated 150 knots. Other agencies also designated SANBA as a violent typhoon, with 10-minute sustained winds surging past the 100-knot mark.

SANBA turned to a northerly track with slight eastward component on September 14. This is due to the shape of the subtropical ridge which was narrower in the middle as a result of the two high pressure cells that formed the ridge, one being north of (and bigger than) the other. As SANBA travelled north, the upper cell became the primary steering force and the storm returned to its NNW movement, heading towards the Ryukyu Islands.

After staying as a category 5 super typhoon for 18 hours, SANBA's structure deteriorated as its clear eye disappeared from infrared satellite imagery. Cloud top temperatures near the eyewall rose and the central dense overcast shrank in size. The eye later re-appeared but it was apparent that the storm was not as intense as before. SANBA impacted the Ryukyu Islands on September 16 when its strength was still considerable. The JMA's intensity estimate was 90 knots, while the CMA and HKO still designated SANBA as super typhoon with wind speeds beyond 100 knots.

SANBA accelerated as it continued its northward journey. It crossed the ridge axis during September 16 and 17 and approached South Korea. It made landfall during the morning of September 17 as a moderate typhoon. SANBA is the fourth tropical cyclone to make landfall at the Korean Peninsula this year (after KHANUN, TEMBIN and BOLAVEN), something not seen in the past 50 years.

Due to land interaction and reduced ocean heat content, SANBA weakened gradually as it crossed South Korea and turned northeast in the Sea of Japan. The storm turned into an extratropical cyclone in the morning of September 18 as it made landfall near Vladivostok, Russia.

三巴是 2012 年首個五級超級颱風。

熱帶氣旋布拉萬八月底轉化為溫帶氣旋後,西北太平洋經歷了一段平靜期,海面能量得以補充,某程度上造就了三巴的強勢。三巴九月初在雅蒲島附近發展為擾動,於 9 月 10 日移至帛琉以北。聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 於 11 日早段升格該擾動為熱帶低氣壓 17W,而 6 小時後日本氣象廳 (JMA) 則升格 17W 為熱帶風暴,並將其命名為三巴。三巴一名由澳門提供,為聖保祿大教堂遺址的俗稱。此名字替代同位置的珍珠;珍珠於 2006 年 5 月在南海繪出一條罕見的路徑,並成為有紀錄以來五月份南海最強的颱風。由於珍珠為菲律賓、越南和中國帶來嚴重災害,該名稱其後退役,而被三巴取代。

三巴形成初期,副熱帶高壓脊幾乎呈南北向,處於風暴東北面。台灣一帶有一微弱脊場,預計會逐漸減弱,因而預測三巴會被副高帶動而向西北偏北移動,橫過西北太平洋。預報模式預測較為一致,各氣象台的預測亦非常吻合。至於強度方面,由於垂直風切變不強,三巴形成初期環流已經比較對稱。受惠於良好輻散及高海溫,三巴於頭兩天穩定增強,於 12 日達強烈熱帶風暴強度,並於 13 日前後發展為颱風。

三巴於 13 日急速增強,其中心密集雲區範圍增大,一清晰風眼於早上發展。風眼稍為擴大,近中午時雲層逐漸消散。增強於當天繼續,各台亦開始大幅提升三巴的估計強度。JTWC 於 13 日凌晨 2 時估計三巴強度為 75 節,上午 8 時則為 90 節,隨後於下午 2 時大幅調高 25 節,而晚上 8 時亦調高 20 節至 135 節。隨著風暴發展成熟,14 日凌晨 2 時三巴達巔峰強度,估算風速為 150 節。其他機構亦將三巴定為猛烈颱風,10 分鐘平均風速超過 100 節。

三巴於 14 日轉向北移,更有輕微向東分量,這是由於副高由南北兩個中心連成而造成中間較窄的結果。隨著三巴北移,北面的高壓成為主要推動力量,令三巴回復西北偏北的路徑,趨向琉球群島。

維持五級超級颱風強度 18 小時後,三巴結構開始轉差,風眼由紅外線雲圖上消失。眼牆雲頂溫度上升,而中心密集雲區縮小。風眼其後再度出現,但風暴明顯不及先前強。三巴於 9 月 16 日橫過琉球群逮,其強度仍然可觀。JMA 強度估算為 90 節,而中國氣象台及香港天文台均維持其超強颱風的級別,風速超過 100 節。

三巴隨後繼續北上,並開始加速。它於 16 至 17 日橫過副高脊線,並於 17 日早上以中等颱風強度登陸南韓。三巴成為本年第四個登陸朝鮮半島的熱帶氣旋 (繼卡努、天秤及布拉萬),這是半世紀來未見的。

由於受陸地影響且海洋熱含量降低,三巴於橫過南韓時減弱,隨後於日本海轉向東北。三巴於 18 日早上登陸俄羅斯海參崴一帶,並轉化為溫帶氣旋。

Figures 圖片

Figures 1a and 1b - Shear distribution and steering flow charts at 8 am on September 13
圖 1a 及 1b - 9 月 13 日上午 8 時之垂直風切變分布及駛流場圖

Figures 2a and 2b - SANBA at peak intensity. Eyewall cloud top temperatures were as low as -80 degrees Celsius.
圖 2a 及 2b - 三巴接近巔峰強度時的衛星圖片。眼牆雲頂溫度
低見攝氏零下 80 度

Figure 3 - Wind field at 9:25 am on September 14
圖 3 - 9 月 14 日上午 9 時 25 分
之風場圖

Figure 4 - Calculated wind field at 8 am on September 14
圖 4 - 9 月 14 日上午 8 時
之估算風場圖

Figure 5 - Forecasts by various agencies at 8 am on September 14
圖 5 -
9 月 14 日上午 8 時各氣象台之預測

Figure 6 - Radar image as SANBA approached the Ryukyu Islands
圖 6 - 三巴靠近琉球群島時的雷達圖

Figure 7 - SANBA crossing South Korea
圖 7 - 三巴正橫過南韓

Other Data 其他數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
12091018 090N1344E 025
12091100 096N1343E 035
12091106 108N1340E 040
12091112 114N1333E 040
12091118 121N1327E 045
12091200 127N1317E 050
12091206 130N1311E 060
12091212 137N1306E 065
12091218 142N1300E 075
12091300 149N1298E 090
12091306 156N1295E 115
12091312 163N1296E 135
12091318 172N1297E 150
12091400 181N1297E 150
12091406 191N1298E 145
12091412 202N1298E 135
12091418 214N1295E 125
12091500 223N1291E 115
12091506 234N1288E 115
12091512 245N1285E 115
12091518 256N1282E 110
12091600 271N1280E 110
12091606 288N1281E 110
12091612 306N1278E 105
12091618 323N1279E 095
12091700 341N1281E 090
12091706 362N1285E 070
12091712 389N1292E 060
12091718 412N1310E 050
12091800 440N1330E 045

Table 2: Track data from JTWC:
表二 : 聯合颱風警報中心之路徑資料

ID       Name  YYMMDD ZZZZ  Lat    Long   Basin Wind Pres
17W      SANBA 120917 1800  41.0N  130.7E WPAC   35   996
17W SANBA 120917 1200 38.7N 129.3E WPAC 40 993
17W SANBA 120917 0600 36.0N 128.6E WPAC 45 989
17W SANBA 120917 0000 34.0N 128.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120917 0000 34.0N 128.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120917 0000 34.0N 128.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120916 1800 32.3N 127.9E WPAC 85 959
17W SANBA 120916 1800 32.3N 127.9E WPAC 85 959
17W SANBA 120916 1800 32.3N 127.9E WPAC 85 959
17W SANBA 120916 1200 30.6N 127.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120916 1200 30.6N 127.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120916 1200 30.6N 127.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120916 0600 28.8N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120916 0600 28.8N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120916 0600 28.8N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120916 0000 27.0N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120916 0000 27.0N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120916 0000 27.0N 128.1E WPAC 95 952
17W SANBA 120915 1800 25.6N 128.2E WPAC 100 948
17W SANBA 120915 1800 25.6N 128.2E WPAC 100 948
17W SANBA 120915 1800 25.6N 128.2E WPAC 100 948
17W SANBA 120915 1200 24.6N 128.4E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 1200 24.6N 128.4E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 1200 24.6N 128.4E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0600 23.4N 128.7E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0600 23.4N 128.7E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0600 23.4N 128.7E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0000 22.3N 129.0E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0000 22.3N 129.0E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120915 0000 22.3N 129.0E WPAC 110 941
17W SANBA 120914 1800 21.4N 129.5E WPAC 125 929
17W SANBA 120914 1800 21.4N 129.5E WPAC 125 929
17W SANBA 120914 1800 21.4N 129.5E WPAC 125 929
17W SANBA 120914 1200 20.2N 129.8E WPAC 135 922
17W SANBA 120914 1200 20.2N 129.8E WPAC 135 922
17W SANBA 120914 1200 20.2N 129.8E WPAC 135 922
17W SANBA 120914 0600 19.1N 129.8E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120914 0600 19.1N 129.8E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120914 0600 19.1N 129.8E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120914 0000 18.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120914 0000 18.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120914 0000 18.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120913 1800 17.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120913 1800 17.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120913 1800 17.2N 129.7E WPAC 150 911
17W SANBA 120913 1200 16.3N 129.6E WPAC 140 918
17W SANBA 120913 1200 16.3N 129.6E WPAC 140 918
17W SANBA 120913 1200 16.3N 129.6E WPAC 140 918
17W SANBA 120913 0600 15.6N 129.5E WPAC 115 937
17W SANBA 120913 0600 15.6N 129.5E WPAC 115 937
17W SANBA 120913 0600 15.6N 129.5E WPAC 115 937
17W SANBA 120913 0000 14.8N 129.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120913 0000 14.8N 129.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120913 0000 14.8N 129.8E WPAC 90 956
17W SANBA 120912 1800 14.2N 130.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120912 1800 14.2N 130.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120912 1800 14.2N 130.1E WPAC 80 963
17W SANBA 120912 1200 13.7N 130.5E WPAC 70 970
17W SANBA 120912 1200 13.7N 130.5E WPAC 70 970
17W SANBA 120912 1200 13.7N 130.5E WPAC 70 970
17W SANBA 120912 0900 13.4N 130.9E WPAC 65 974
17W SANBA 120912 0900 13.4N 130.9E WPAC 65 974
17W SANBA 120912 0600 12.9N 131.2E WPAC 65 974
17W SANBA 120912 0600 12.9N 131.2E WPAC 65 974
17W SANBA 120912 0000 12.6N 131.5E WPAC 55 982
17W SANBA 120912 0000 12.6N 131.5E WPAC 55 982
17W SANBA 120911 1800 12.2N 132.1E WPAC 45 989
17W SANBA 120911 1200 11.8N 133.1E WPAC 45 989
17W SANBA 120911 0600 11.1N 133.8E WPAC 35 996
17W SANBA 120911 0000 10.1N 134.2E WPAC 30 1000
17W SANBA 120910 1800 9.0N 134.5E WPAC 25 1004
17W SANBA 120910 1200 8.1N 135.0E WPAC 20 1007
17W SANBA 120910 0600 7.8N 135.5E WPAC 20 1007
17W SANBA 120910 0000 7.7N 136.3E WPAC 20 1006
17W SANBA 120909 1800 7.6N 137.2E WPAC 15 1006
17W SANBA 120909 1200 7.5N 138.0E WPAC 15 1010
17W SANBA 120909 0600 7.4N 138.9E WPAC 15 1010
17W SANBA 120909 0000 7.4N 139.9E WPAC 15 1010

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Mon Aug 26 2019 02:47:02 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Dec 24 2013

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