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201306W (RUMBIA 溫比亞) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on July 29, 2013; final version issued on August 5, 2013)
(初稿於 2013 年 7 月 29 日發出,最後版本於 2013 年 8 月 5 日上載)

Brief profile of RUMBIA 溫比亞小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 06W
International number 國際編號 1306
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2013/06/28 08 HKT - 2013/07/02 08 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 4.00 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 65 knots 節 (Category 1 Typhoon 一級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 974 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
3 (Strong Wind Signal 強風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
SW 380 km (real-time warning 實時報告) / SSW 385 km (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
Around 約 2013/07/02 00 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告) / 2013/07/01 15 HKT (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
1004.0 hPa 百帕 (2013/07/01 14:43 HKT)

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動方向和速度
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2013/06/30 (SUN) 21:10 HKT SSE 720 km NW at 28 km/h 85 km/h (45 knots, TS)
2013/07/01 (MON) 13:15 HKT SSW 400 km NW at 30 km/h 105 km/h (55 knots, STS)
2013/07/02 (TUE) 05:10 HKT WSW 420 km NW at 25 km/h 105 km/h (55 knots, STS)
2013/07/02 (TUE) 09:40 HKT W 480 km NW at 25 km/h 90 km/h (50 knots, STS)

Figure 圖:

(Track courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

Percentile rank among storms with #3 Signal (at compilation of this review)*:
發出三號信號之風暴中的百分等級 (編寫此回顧之時)*:

*This measures the relative wind strength in Hong Kong caused by this storm compared with others that share the same signal. 指標顯示此風暴相對於其他發出同樣信號的風暴為香港帶來之風力強度

For more information, please refer to Wind Speed Data for TCs that Have Affected Hong Kong. 更多資訊載於 影響香港氣旋之風速數據

  Overall:
總計:
25
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
Component Ranks 分部等級
  Reference stations:
參考站:
27
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
  Victoria Harbour:
維多利亞港:
27
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
  Urban:
市區:
29
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
  Offshore & high ground
離岸和高地:
15
  Weak

Cyclones that attained similar rating (with signal #3): MEGI (2010), noname (2006/9), WUKONG (2000)
相近級別之熱帶氣旋 (三號信號):鮎魚 (2010)、無名 (2006/9)、悟空 (2000)

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC track from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on RUMBIA 本站有關溫比亞的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on RUMBIA. 請按這裡

Storm Formation and Development 氣旋形成和發展

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

A tropical disturbance developed east of the Philippines towards the end of June. It gathered strength on June 28 and became the 6th tropical depression to form in northwestern Pacific basin this year at 8 am. The initial forecast by the JTWC directed 06W towards Hong Kong as a result of persistent northwestward movement in the southwestern periphery of the subtropical ridge followed by a poleward turn as the ridge weakened. This prediction was in accordance with model outputs which formed a tight cluster in the vicinity of Hong Kong.

There was relatively low shear near 06W, but the storm was surrounded by high shear areas. With the ridge firmly in place, 06W moved quickly in the direction of WNW to NW. It consolidated during June 28 and was upgraded into a tropical storm by the JMA that night. 06W was assigned the name RUMBIA, which was contributed by Malaysia and is a type of palm tree that yields sago. Most agencies still put RUMBIA towards Hong Kong, albeit as a relatively weak system that could not intensify substantially due to its rapid speed and loss of energy as it crossed the Philippines.

RUMBIA made landfall at Eastern Samar in the morning of June 29 as a slightly sheared system. The storm did not lose strength during the passage in the Philippines as it mostly tracked across seas. As a result of the Philippine landmass, RUMBIA deflected towards the WNW and passed south of Manila that night. The storm maintained its high speed and entered the South China Sea in the morning of June 30, after spending a day crossing the island country. Parts of the Philippines suffered heavy loss, mostly due to flooding and derived damage.

一個熱帶擾動於 6 月下旬在菲律賓以東海域發展。它於 28 日上午 8 時增強為本年西北太平洋第 6 個熱帶低氣壓。06W 當時處於副熱帶高壓脊西南部,該脊預料於後期減弱,因此 JTWC 初始預報顯示 06W 長遠將以西北轉西北偏北方向移動,趨向香港一帶。此預測與模式預報相似,它們均把登陸點直指香港附近。

06W 附近垂直風切變相對較低,但外圍被高風切區包圍。由於副高強盛,06W 快速向西北偏西至西北移動。它於 28 日整固,晚間被 JMA 升格為熱帶風暴,並被命名為溫比亞。此名字由馬來西亞提供,為一種盛產西米的棕櫚樹。各機構均預測溫比亞趨向香港鄰近地區,但由於其高速移動且預料會經過菲律賓使能量流失,強度預測並不高。

溫比亞於 29 日早上登陸東薩馬省,系統當時有少許被切離。由於溫比亞通過菲律賓時大多數時間處於海面上,它並無減弱跡象;但受其地形影響,溫比亞偏向西北偏西移動,於當晚掠過馬尼拉以南。風暴保持其移速,並於 30 日早上進入南海,只消一日便通過菲律賓。該國部分地方遭受水浸及其他相關破壞,損失頗為嚴重。

Figure 1 - Numerical model predictions at 8 pm, June 28
圖 1 - 6 月 28 日晚上 8 時數值模式預報

Figure 2 - RUMBIA at formation
圖 2 - 溫比亞初形成之時

Figure 3 - JTWC's initial forecast
圖 3 - JTWC 之初始預報

Figure 4 - Steering flow chart at 8 am, June 29
圖 4 - 6 月 29 日上午 8 時之駛流場圖

Figure 5 - RUMBIA crossing the Philippines
圖 5 - 溫比亞正橫過菲律賓

Crossing South China Sea 橫過南海

Due to RUMBIA's WNW motion across the Philippines, agencies started to adjust their track forecasts to the west, depicting landfall near western Guangdong or even Leizhou Peninsula. The storm started to intensify again as land interaction diminished, and resumed its NW track. It entered Hong Kong's 800-km circle near 5 pm on June 30, and the #1 Standby Signal was issued at 9:10 pm that night when RUMBIA was 720 km SSE of the territory. It was forecast that rain and wind would strengthen the next day as RUMBIA moved to SW of Hong Kong. Since the next day was the anniversary of Hong Kong's handover to China, this meant that activities on that day could be affected, most notably the July 1 demonstration as well as the Hong Kong Dome Festival, a live outdoor concert.

The storm tracked steadily NW across the South China Sea during the night of June 30. At that time it was still trying to re-organize itself following the deterioration of structure after crossing the Philippines. Although RUMBIA's convections were noticeably stronger in its southern semicircle, a rainband in its northern side struck Hong Kong in the morning of July 1. Scattered showers started to affect the territory; around 10 mm of rain fell in various parts of Hong Kong. The thunderstorm warning was also issued briefly in the morning.

As RUMBIA edged closer, winds strengthened during the day and was the most noticeable in the morning and early afternoon. Strong force winds were observed at Cheung Chau and Tai Mei Tuk near noon, and continued to strengthen. The Observatory hence issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 1:15 pm. Although it was previously mentioned that the Dome Festival would be cancelled under the Strong Wind Signal, the organizers made an announcement that it would proceed normally just before the signal issuance, and as a result the concert was not cancelled.

Another rainband struck Hong Kong between 3 and 4 pm. Most stations recorded a peak in wind speed within this time. The squally showers did not last long, but the concert was eventually cancelled at 5 pm as outdoor conditions were still inclement. The rally, on the other hand, proceeded as usual without major disruptions due to the weather.

Contrary to initial predictions, RUMBIA intensified substantially as it crossed the South China Sea. An eye was visible in satellite imageries that afternoon. The JTWC upgraded RUMBIA into a typhoon that afternoon, whereas other agencies (which mostly use 10-minute wind speed averages) fixed RUMBIA as a severe tropical storm.

After the passage of the rainbands, winds diminished towards the evening. Several stations were able to maintain strong force winds, but most had fallen to below that level. Due to the lack of deep convections in RUMBIA's northern semicircle, Hong Kong was hardly affected by showers that night. At several stations like Chek Lap Kok, Lau Fau Shan and Sai Kung, winds strengthened again that night but only for very brief moments. RUMBIA made its closest point of approach to Hong Kong at around midnight at a distance of 380 km SW of the territory [Note 1]. At such distance a higher signal was deemed unnecessary.

由於溫比亞通過菲律賓時移向偏西,各台開始將路徑預測往西調,登陸點變成廣東西部甚至雷州半島。脫離陸地影響的溫比亞開始增強,並回復西北路徑。它於 6 月 30 日下午約 5 時進入本港 800 公里範圍,而一號戒備信號於當晚 9 時 10 分發出,當時溫比亞處於本港東南偏南 720 公里。隨著溫比亞靠近,天文台預測本港風雨將於翌日增強。由於之後一天為香港回歸紀念日,當天多個活動可能受影響,較為注目的有七一遊行及巨蛋音樂節。

風暴於 30 日晚穩定向西北移動,橫過南海。通過菲律賓令溫比亞的組織變得略為鬆散,而它於當晚逐漸重新整固。雖然溫比亞南面的對流明顯較強,其北部一條雨帶於 7 月 1 日早上影響香港,本地間中有狂風驟雨,大部分地區錄得約 10 毫米雨量,而雷暴警告亦曾發出

溫比亞當天進一步靠近香港,風勢於日間增強,而增幅於早上及下午初段較為明顯。長洲及大美督於近中午時份開始吹強風,並有繼續增強跡象。天文台於下午 1 時 15 分改發三號強風信號。雖然先前已訂明三號信號生效下巨蛋音樂節會取消,但主辦單位於三號信號發出前已宣布音樂會將如期舉行。

另一道雨帶於下午 3 至 4 時掃過本港,大部分風速站於這段時間錄得風速峰值。狂風驟雨維持時間不長,但由於露天環境較為惡劣,巨蛋音樂節結果提早於下午 5 時結束。另一邊廂,同時間舉行的七一遊行則沒有因天氣而受到太大影響。

與先前預計有別,溫比亞於橫過南海時明顯增強,下午時份風眼於衛星雲圖上可見。JTWC 遂將溫比亞升格為颱風,而其他大多數使用 10 分鐘平均風速指標的機構則將其定為強烈熱帶風暴。

雨帶過後,本港風勢於傍晚減弱,只剩下數個氣象站吹強風。由於溫比亞北面缺乏深層對流,香港當晚幾乎沒有受驟雨影響。部分風速站如赤臘角、流浮山及西貢當晚風速曾短暫增強。溫比亞於 2 日午夜左右最接近香港,當時它集結於本港西南約 380 公里 [註一],在此距離一般認為無需改發更高信號。

Note 1: RUMBIA's distance from Hong Kong remained very stable throughout the afternoon of July 1; in the TC report the point of closest approach was 385 km SSW at 3 pm, July 1.
註一:溫比亞與香港的距離於 7 月 1 日下午幾乎保持不變;天文台的熱帶氣旋報告中指它於 1 日下午 3 時最接近香港,在本港西南偏南 385 公里處掠過。

Figures 6a and 6b - Track forecasts from various agencies on June 29 and 30
圖 6a 及 6b - 各氣象台於 6 月 29 及 30 日之路徑預測

Figure 7 - Wind field associated with RUMBIA
圖 7 - 與溫比亞相關之風場

Figure 8 - An eye appeared on visible satellite imagery on July 1
圖 8 - 一風眼於 7 月 1 日在可見光衛星雲圖上出現

Figure 9 - Rainbands associated with RUMBIA affecting Hong Kong
圖 9 - 與溫比亞相關之雨區影響本港

Figures 10a to 10c - Wind speeds and directions in Hong Kong at 9 am, 3 pm and 9 pm on July 1
圖 10a 至 10c - 7 月 1 日上午 9 時、下午 3 及 9 時之本港風速風向圖

Figures 11a to 11c - Wind speed time series at Cheung Chau, Kai Tak and Sai Kung
圖 11a 至 11c - 長洲、啟德和西貢的風速時間序列圖

Approaching Western Guangdong 趨向廣東西部

RUMBIA skirted the northeastern coast of Hainan in the small hours of July 2 without making a landfall there. It instead landed at Mazhang, Zhanjiang at around 5:30 am. It then crossed the northern Leizhou Peninsula and entered Guangxi province. The Observatory lowered the Strong Wind Signal to the Standby Signal at 5:10 am as strong winds were only confined to offshore areas and on high ground. That signal was cancelled at 9:40 am when RUMBIA was 480 km west of the territory. RUMBIA weakened into a tropical storm near noon while still moving relatively quickly inland.

RUMBIA weakened further into a tropical depression in the night of July 2, and dissipated soon afterwards. The subtropical ridge resumed its influence in southern China and the weather turned stable on July 3.

溫比亞於 2 日凌晨時份掠過海南東北部對開海域,但並未登陸。它最終於上午約 5 時 30 分登陸湛江麻章,並橫過雷州半島北部,隨後進入廣西省。隨著強風只局限於離岸及高地,天文台於上午 5 時 10 分改發一號戒備信號,而該信號亦於上午 9 時 40 分取消,當時溫比亞位處本港以西約 480 公里。溫比亞當天正午減弱為熱帶風暴,於陸上仍保持一定移速。

溫比亞隨後於 2 日晚間減弱為熱帶低氣壓,並於短時間後消散。副熱帶高壓脊恢復其對華南的影響,天氣於 3 日漸趨穩定。

Figure 12 - RUMBIA about to make landfall at Zhanjiang
圖 12 - 溫比亞即將於湛江登陸

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

Station
風速站
Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
最高十分鐘平均風速
Beaufort classification
蒲福氏風級分類
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角 46 km/h STRONG 強風
Cheung Chau 長洲 58 km/h STRONG 強風
Kai Tak 啟德 39 km/h Fresh 清勁
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 38 km/h Fresh 清勁
Sai Kung 西貢 44 km/h STRONG 強風
Sha Tin 沙田 22 km/h Moderate 和緩
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺 21 km/h Moderate 和緩
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 31 km/h Fresh 清勁

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds: 3
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds: 0
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds: 0
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds: 0

錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數: 3
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數: 0

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
13062800 093N1293E 025
13062806 098N1287E 030
13062812 103N1280E 035
13062818 107N1266E 035
13062900 115N1253E 040
13062906 124N1242E 040
13062912 134N1229E 040
13062918 138N1215E 040
13063000 147N1197E 040
13063006 156N1185E 045
13063012 165N1171E 050
13063018 174N1156E 050
13070100 183N1140E 055
13070106 191N1126E 065
13070112 197N1117E 065
13070118 205N1106E 060
13070200 214N1099E 055
13070206 227N1091E 045
13070212 236N1086E 035

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據

Station Maximum Gust Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction Speed (km/h) Date/Month Time Direction Speed (km/h) Date/Month Time
Bluff Head (Stanley) SE 77 1/7 14:35 ESE 36 1/7 15:00
          SE 36 1/7 21:00
Central Pier E 59 1/7 14:48 E 31 1/7 14:00
Cheung Chau SE 77 1/7 16:21 SE 54 1/7 21:00
Cheung Chau Beach E 70 1/7 11:13 E 43 1/7 12:00
  E 70 1/7 11:14        
Green Island ESE 81 1/7 14:48 ENE 36 1/7 15:00
Hong Kong International Airport ESE 65 1/7 23:44 ESE 36 1/7 14:00
Kai Tak SSE 62 1/7 14:47 ESE 31 1/7 23:00
King's Park  S 56 1/7 14:51 ESE 22 1/7 11:00
Lau Fau Shan SE 72 1/7 15:12 SE 27 2/7 09:00
Ngong Ping E 112 1/7 18:38 E 67 1/7 21:00
North Point ESE 76 1/7 14:46 E 30 1/7 13:00
Peng Chau SE 59 1/7 14:54 E 31 1/7 12:00
Ping Chau SE 47  1/7 17:57 SSE 9 1/7 17:00
Sai Kung  S 103 1/7 15:21 SSE 36 2/7 00:00
Sha Chau S 62  1/7 14:17 SE 38 1/7 22:00
Sha Lo Wan ESE 67 1/7 21:31 ESE 31 1/7 22:00
Sha Tin SSW 43 1/7 15:08 E 19 1/7 22:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon) ESE 70 1/7 14:48 E 36 1/7 15:00
Ta Kwu Ling  E 51 1/7 14:04 E 16 1/7 15:00
Tai Mei Tuk E 58 1/7 14:04 E 36 1/7 12:00
Tai Mo Shan ESE 99 1/7 17:12 ESE 63 1/7 16:00
Tai Po Kau ESE 62 1/7 12:01 ESE 31 1/7 12:00
Tap Mun SE 62 1/7 15:43 SE 31 1/7 23:00
Tate's Cairn  SW 70 1/7 14:57 SSW 47 2/7 08:00
Tseung Kwan O E 41 1/7 11:58 ESE 14 1/7 19:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot SE 92 1/7 14:56 SE 25 2/7 08:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices SE 62 1/7 12:29 SE 23 1/7 22:00
Waglan Island SSE 96 1/7 14:32 SSE 51 1/7 17:00
Wetland Park SE 68 1/7 15:11 SE 20 2/7 09:00
Wong Chuk Hang ESE 59 1/7 14:42 E 23 1/7 14:00

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by RUMBIA from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station
30 - Jun

1 - Jul

2 - Jul
Total(mm)
Hong Kong Observatory
0.0

29.5

0.0
29.5
Hong Kong International Airport (HKA)
Trace

21.4

0.9
22.3
Cheung Chau (CCH)
0.0

13.5

0.0
13.5
N05 Fanling

0.0

41.5
0.0
41.5
N13 High Island

0.0

22.0
0.0
22.0
K04 Jordan Valley

0.0

17.5
0.0
17.5
N06 Kwai Chung

0.0

39.0
0.0
39.0
H12 Mid Levels

0.0

18.0
0.0
18.0
N09 Sha Tin

0.0

18.5
1.0
19.5
H19 Shau Kei Wan

0.0

38.5
0.0
38.5
SEK Shek Kong

0.0

27.0
0.0
27.0
K06 So Uk Estate

0.0

36.0
0.0
36.0
R31 Tai Mei Tuk

0.0

29.0
3.5
32.5
R21 Tap Shek Kok

0.0

19.5
0.5
20.0
N17 Tung Chung

0.0

27.0
1.0
28.0
R27 Yuen Long

0.0

23.5
0.5
24.0

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Tue Mar 19 2019 04:23:35 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Jan 31 2017

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