Bookmark and Share

TC Watch / 熱帶氣旋 > Selected TC Review / 重要熱帶氣旋回顧 > 201309W (JEBI 飛燕) [Refresh 更新]

201309W (JEBI 飛燕) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on August 11, 2013; final version issued on September 4, 2013)
(初稿於 2013 年 8 月 11 日發出,最後版本於 2013 年 9 月 4 日上載)

Brief profile of JEBI 飛燕小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 09W
International number 國際編號 1309
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2013/07/31 08 HKT - 2013/08/03 14 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 3.25 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 60 knots 節 (Severe Tropical Storm 強烈熱帶風暴)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 978 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
3 (Strong Wind Signal 強風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
SW 420 km (real-time warning 實時報告) / 430 km (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
2013/08/02 20 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告) / 19 HKT (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
1002.0 hPa 百帕 (2013/08/02 03:08 HKT)

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動方向和速度
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2013/08/01 (THU) 09:40 HKT S 740 km NW/WNW at 12 km/h 75 km/h (40 knots, TS)
2013/08/01 (THU) 16:10 HKT S 670 km NW at 12 km/h 75 km/h (40 knots, TS)
2013/08/02 (FRI) 22:15 HKT WSW 450 km NW/WNW at 25 km/h 105 km/h (55 knots, STS)

Figure 圖:

(Track courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

Percentile rank among storms with #3 Signal (at compilation of this review)*:
發出三號信號之風暴中的百分等級 (編寫此回顧之時)*:

*This measures the relative wind strength in Hong Kong caused by this storm compared with others that share the same signal. 指標顯示此風暴相對於其他發出同樣信號的風暴為香港帶來之風力強度

For more information, please refer to Wind Speed Data for TCs that Have Affected Hong Kong. 更多資訊載於 影響香港氣旋之風速數據

  Overall:
總計:
21
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
Component Ranks 分部等級
  Reference stations:
參考站:
14
  Weak
  Victoria Harbour:
維多利亞港:
30
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
  Urban:
市區:
21
  Moderately weak
中等偏弱
  Offshore & high ground
離岸和高地:
18
  Weak

Cyclones that attained similar rating (with signal #3): MEGI (2010), FANAPI (2010), CHANTHU (2010), noname (2006/9), ANGELA (1989)
相近級別之熱帶氣旋 (三號信號):鮎魚 (2010), 凡亞比 (2010), 燦都 (2010), 無名 (2006/9), 安琪拉 (1989)

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC track from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on JEBI 本站有關飛燕的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on JEBI. 請按這裡

Storm Formation and Development 氣旋形成和發展

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

The intertropical convergence zone became active in late July, where several disturbances formed. One of them, 91W, was upgraded by the JTWC into tropical depression 09W at 8 am, July 31. At the same time, the JMA upgraded this system into a tropical storm and assigned the name JEBI, which comes from South Korea and means swallow. The HKO has been monitoring this system as well. With the JMA assigning it a name, the HKO also upgraded it into tropical depression status at around 10 am, and further to tropical storm intensity several hours later.

JEBI was at that time moving west slowly, as a result of the combined influence from the subtropical ridge to the northeast and equatorial ridge to the southeast. Numerical models and official agencies were fairly confident of JEBI's future track, in which a northwesterly movement was expected soon due to the strengthening of the ridge, followed by a turn to the west as the storm reached the ridge's southern edge. JEBI was also forecast to intensify steadily as shear was virtually non-existent, and sea temperatures were very high in this mid-summer time.

JEBI continued to move westwards slowly on July 31. Its track was somewhat irregular partly because the storm was in its formative stage, and partly due to another disturbance 93W that was located east of Luzon at that moment. It slowed down significantly in the morning of August 1 and turned poleward. Due to the combined effect of JEBI and the subtropical ridge, winds were rather strong in parts of the territory with fresh winds blowing in offshore locations. The Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal at 9:40 am.

熱帶輻合帶於七月底變得活躍,幾個擾動相繼出現,而其中 91W 於 7 月 31 日上午 8 時被 JTWC 升格為熱帶低氣壓 09W。與此同時,JMA 將系統升格為熱帶風暴,並將其命名為飛燕,而此名由南韓提供。天文台當時亦密切注意 91W 的發展,隨著 JMA 給予風暴名字,天文台亦於約上午 10 時將其升格為熱帶低氣壓,數小時後升格為熱帶風暴

受東北面副熱帶高壓脊及東南面赤道反氣旋的影響,飛燕被命名時正向西緩慢移動。各數值預報模式及官方氣象台對飛燕的未來路徑預測頗有信心,預料副高增強令飛燕轉西北移,並當其移至副高南端時逐漸轉往西移。由於垂直風切變微弱且海溫於盛夏較高,一般認為飛燕會逐漸增強。

飛燕於 31 日餘下時間向偏西移動。由於風暴初形成且呂宋以東有另一擾動 93W,飛燕的路徑較不規則。它於 8 月 1 日明顯減速,並轉往北移。飛燕及副高的共同影響令本港風力較強,離岸風勢達清勁程度,天文台遂於上午 9 時 40 分發出一號戒備信號

Figure 1 - Steering flow chart at 8 am, July 31
圖 1 - 7 月 31 日上午 8 時之駛流場圖

Figure 2 - Track forecasts from various agencies on July 31
圖 2 - 各氣象台於 7 月 31 日之路徑預測

Figure 3 - Satellite image of JEBI on August 1
圖 3 - 8 月 1 日飛燕之衛星圖

Crossing South China Sea 橫過南海

Soon after the issuance of the Standby Signal the Observatory had already hinted at the necessity of higher signals. Winds picked up gradually that morning, and as a rainband approached a spike could be seen at many stations near 3 pm. The Observatory then issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 4:10 pm, when JEBI was 670 km south of Hong Kong. The Standby Signal lasted for only 6.5 hours, the shortest among all Standby Signals that were replaced by higher signals since the second visit of Tropical Storm PABUK in 2007. Meanwhile, the distance from Hong Kong at which the Strong Wind Signal was issued is the farthest since Typhoon LYNN in 1987. Another rainband produced yet another surge in wind speed near 6 pm, but after that winds diminished substantially. During the night only Cheung Chau and some other highground stations managed to reach strong force winds.

Influenced by JEBI's circulation, disturbance 93W moved WNW quickly and landed near Shantou in the morning of August 2. This could be observed through China's radar images as well as the drop in pressure recorded there. That low pressure system could also be a reason that winds in Hong Kong weakened substantially after the issuance of the Strong Wind Signal.

Regarding JEBI itself, the storm moved NNW on August 2 and had apparently intensified judging from satellite images. Its cloud bands tightened and an eye appeared. Most agencies estimated JEBI's strength to be a high-end severe tropical storm. Although the storm turned NW in response to the strengthening of the ridge, its distance to Hong Kong reduced considerably during that day. However, its wind radius was not large enough to sustain strong force winds in Hong Kong. JEBI accelerated and made landfall at Wenchang, Hainan shortly before 8 pm that night. It turned WNW abruptly and crossed Haikou soon afterwards, before entering the Gulf of Tonkin. Perhaps a little bit unexpected, the Observatory cancelled the Strong Wind Signal at 10:15 pm instead of lowering it to the Standby Signal. The last such occurrence was in 2011, when the Strong Wind Signal was replaced by the Strong Monsoon Signal during the influence of Typhoon NALGAE. As JEBI moved to Hong Kong's southwestern quadrant, wind direction started to veer from east to southeast during the night.

一號信號發出後不久,天文台已暗示需要發出更高信號。1 日早上本港風力徐徐上升,其後一條雨帶到達,很多氣象站於下午 3 時左右錄得風速急升。天文台於下午 4 時 10 分改掛三號強風信號,當時飛燕於本港以南約 670 公里。一號信號只維持 6.5 小時,若只計算被更高信號替代的一號信號,這是自 2007 年熱帶風暴帕布「回馬槍」襲港以來最短的。此外,這個三號信號是自 1987 年颱風林茵以來於最遠地方發出的。三號信號生效後,另一道雨帶令本港風勢於下午 6 時增強,但其後明顯減弱,當晚只得長洲及一些高地氣象站錄得強風。

受飛燕的環流影響,熱帶擾動 93W 向西北偏西快速移動,於 2 日上午在汕頭一帶登陸,這從中國的雷達圖及當地降壓可以確認,而該低壓區亦可能是導致香港風力於三號信號發出後減弱的其中一個原因。

飛燕於 2 日向西北偏北移動,從衛星雲圖上看來它明顯增強,其雲帶變得緊密,且風眼開始形成,大多數機構將飛燕定為強烈熱帶風暴上限強度。雖然副高增強令飛燕轉西北移,它與香港的距離於當日仍繼續減少。但是,它的風圈未能使香港穩定吹強風。飛燕當天加速並於晚上 8 時前登陸海南文昌,隨後轉往西北偏西移動,橫過海口並進入北部灣。令人有些意想不到的是天文台於晚上 10 時 15 分取消三號強風信號,而不是先以一號信號取代。此情況對上一次於 2011 年出現,當時颱風尼格橫過南海並減弱,天文台以強烈季候風信號取代三號信號。隨著飛燕移至香港的西南象限,晚間風向開始由偏東順轉至東南。

Figure 4 - A rainband affecting Hong Kong in the afternoon of August 1
圖 4 - 一道雨帶於 8 月 1 日下午影響本港

Figures 5a and 5b - Tropical disturbance 93W making landfall at Shantou. Left: Radar image; Right: 24-hour change in sea level pressure
圖 5a 及 5b - 熱帶擾動 93W 於汕頭登陸。左圖:雷達圖;右圖:24 小時海平面氣壓變化

Figures 6a and 6b - JEBI making landfall at northeastern Hainan. This was also the moment when JEBI was closest to Hong Kong. Left: Satellite image; Right: Radar image
圖 6a 及 6b - 飛燕於海南東北部登陸,此刻亦是風暴最接近香港之時。左圖:衛星雲圖;右圖:雷達圖

Figures 7a to 7c - Wind speed time series at Chek Lap Kok, Cheung Chau and Waglan Island
圖 7a 至 7c - 赤鱲角、長洲及橫瀾島的風速時間序列圖

Across the Gulf of Tonkin and Landfall at Vietnam 橫過北部灣並登陸越南

JEBI maintained its tight structure as it travelled in the Gulf. Again due to the combined effect of the storm and the subtropical ridge, which had extended westward by that time, winds picked up again in Hong Kong. Strong force winds were observed at Cheung Chau, Green Island, Sha Chau, Waglan Island, among others. The Observatory had no other choices and issued the Strong Monsoon Signal at 4:15 am on August 3, when JEBI was around 600 km from Hong Kong. That signal lasted for 7 hours and was lifted at 11:15 am.

JEBI continued to move WNW and made landfall at northern Vietnam before noon, still as a severe tropical storm. The storm started to weaken rapidly on land and passed north of Hanoi that afternoon. It weakened gradually and degenerated into a low pressure area near the Vietnam-China border on August 4. On the other hand, the weather in Hong Kong remained unstable on August 3 and more than 30 mm of rainfall were recorded across the territory. As the subtropical ridge pushed to the west, showers diminished on August 4.

飛燕於橫過北部灣時保持其緊密結構。已西伸的副高與風暴共同影響下,香港風勢再度增強。長洲、青洲、沙洲、橫瀾島等地吹強風,天文台於別無選擇下於 3 日上午 4 時 15 分發出強烈季候風信號,當時飛燕距離香港約 600 公里。該信號維持 7 小時,於上午 11 時 15 分取消

飛燕繼續向西北偏西移動,於中午前在越南北部登陸,當時仍然為一強烈熱帶風暴。飛燕於陸地上開始急速減弱,下午掠過河內以北。它於 4 日在越南-中國邊境一帶減弱為低壓區。另一方面,香港的天氣於 3 日仍然不穩定,大部分地區錄得超過 30 毫米雨量。隨著副高繼續西伸,驟雨於 4 日減少。

Figure 8 - JEBI crossing northern Vietnam, still with a tight structure
圖 8 - 飛燕橫過越南北部,其結構仍然緊密

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

Station
風速站
Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
最高十分鐘平均風速
Beaufort classification
蒲福氏風級分類
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角 57 km/h STRONG 強風
Cheung Chau 長洲 68 km/h GALE 烈風
Kai Tak 啟德 36 km/h Fresh 清勁
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 36 km/h Fresh 清勁
Sai Kung 西貢 45 km/h STRONG 強風
Sha Tin 沙田 23 km/h Moderate 和緩
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺 26 km/h Moderate 和緩
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 44 km/h STRONG 強風

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds: 4
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds: 1
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds: 0
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds: 0

錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數: 4
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數: 1
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數: 0

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
13073018 147N1164E 025
13073100 149N1159E 030
13073106 150N1153E 040
13073112 152N1148E 040
13073118 150N1141E 040
13080100 154N1138E 045
13080106 161N1136E 045
13080112 165N1131E 050
13080118 169N1128E 050
13080200 175N1127E 055
13080206 188N1118E 060
13080212 199N1108E 060
13080218 204N1092E 060
13080300 210N1082E 060
13080306 215N1066E 050

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據

Station Maximum Gust Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction Speed (km/h) Date/Month Time Direction Speed (km/h) Date/Month Time
Bluff Head (Stanley) ESE 63 1/8 17:22 ESE 34 1/8 18:00
Central Pier E 63 1/8 15:03 E 34 1/8 12:00
Cheung Chau SE 87 1/8 17:36 ESE 45 1/8 18:00
Cheung Chau Beach E 81 1/8 15:13 E 45 1/8 16:00
Green Island SSE 85 2/8 20:28 NE 45 1/8 11:00
Hong Kong International Airport ESE 75 1/8 15:27 E 38 1/8 16:00
Kai Tak E 65 1/8 14:53 E 27 1/8 15:00
          E 27 2/8 15:00
King's Park  S 63 2/8 20:39 ESE 19 1/8 11:00
          ESE 19 1/8 15:00
Lau Fau Shan ENE 56 2/8 10:42 E 30 1/8 12:00
  ESE 56 2/8 20:56 E 30 1/8 16:00
Ngong Ping ENE 99 1/8 19:44 E 76 1/8 20:00
  E 99 1/8 20:11        
  E 99 2/8 00:00        
North Point E 63 1/8 14:54 E 27 1/8 23:00
Peng Chau ESE 81 1/8 15:12 E 40 1/8 16:00
Ping Chau ESE 31  1/8 14:51 E 9 1/8 14:00
          E 9 1/8 15:00
Sai Kung  ESE 70 2/8 10:06 ENE 34 1/8 15:00
Sha Chau ESE 65  1/8 15:31 ESE 36 2/8 21:00
Sha Lo Wan SE 65 1/8 18:00 E 31 1/8 16:00
Sha Tin ESE 52 1/8 14:56 E 16 1/8 12:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon) E 72 1/8 14:58 E 34 1/8 13:00
Ta Kwu Ling  E 51 1/8 15:11 E 16 1/8 15:00
Tai Mei Tuk ESE 81 1/8 14:54 E 40 2/8 11:00
Tai Mo Shan E 101 2/8 10:27 E 68 1/8 22:00
Tai Po Kau E 70 1/8 15:02 E 31 1/8 13:00
          E 31 1/8 15:00
Tap Mun SE 70 2/8 21:07 SE 27 2/8 22:00
Tate's Cairn  SE 83 2/8 10:08 SE 45 2/8 10:00
Tseung Kwan O SE 54 2/8 10:03 ENE 13 1/8 12:00
          ENE 13 1/8 15:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot SE 65 2/8 20:35 E 23 2/8 21:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices SE 56 2/8 20:48 ESE 20 2/8 21:00
Waglan Island S 77 2/8 20:25 ENE 51 2/8 08:00
Wetland Park ENE 41 1/8 15:06 E 19 1/8 12:00
Wong Chuk Hang WNW 56 2/8 20:21 E 23 1/8 11:00

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by JEBI from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station
1 Aug

2 Aug

Total(mm)
Hong Kong Observatory
4.5

72.4

76.9
Hong Kong International Airport (HKA)
1.6

9.6

11.2
Cheung Chau (CCH)
2.5

17.0

19.5
N05 Fanling

1.5

52.5
54.0
N13 High Island

4.0

53.0
57.0
K04 Jordan Valley

6.0

42.0
48.0
N06 Kwai Chung

8.0

95.0
103.0
H12 Mid Levels

5.5

92.5
98.0
N09 Sha Tin

8.0

48.5
56.5
H19 Shau Kei Wan

8.0

81.0
89.0
SEK Shek Kong

4.5

73.5
78.0
K06 So Uk Estate

6.0

80.0
86.0
R31 Tai Mei Tuk

2.5

37.0
39.5
R21 Tap Shek Kok

0.0

33.5
33.5
N17 Tung Chung

1.0

12.0
13.0
R27 Yuen Long

0.5

33.5
34.0

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Fri Jun 21 2019 07:19:19 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Jan 31 2017

觀看訪客統計報表 Web Traffic Statistics

Statistics