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201513W (SOUDELOR 蘇迪羅) - Profile 檔案

(Issued on August 18, 2015)
(於 2015 年 8 月 18 日發出)

Brief profile of SOUDELOR 蘇迪羅小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 13W
International number 國際編號 1513
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2015/07/30 08 HKT - 2015/08/09 14 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 10.25 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 155 knots 節 (Category 5 Super Typhoon 五級超級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 907 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
N/A 不適用
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
N/A 不適用
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
N/A 不適用

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on SOUDELOR 本站有關蘇迪羅的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on SOUDELOR. 請按這裡

Storm Summary 氣旋摘要

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

SOUDELOR formed as a tropical disturbance southwest of Wake Island towards the end of July. It gathered strength on July 30 and was upgraded into tropical depression 13W by the JTWC. The storm continued to tighten during the day, prompting the JMA to upgrade it into a tropical storm that night and give it the name SOUDELOR.

Prediction of SOUDELOR's track was a fairly straightforward exercise due to the dominance of the subtropical ridge to its north. Numerical models were in good agreement and all expected SOUDELOR to move WNW along the base of the ridge, although there was some spread of their forecasts at later taus.

SOUDELOR moved west and did not pick up much strength on July 31 as the storm struggled to form convective bands. This situation continued on August 1. But as upper-level divergence improved, SOUDELOR's convective activities became more vigorous during the night. It intensified into a severe tropical storm early on August 2, and further into a typhoon that afternoon.

After passing some 300 km to the north of Guam, SOUDELOR turned slightly more poleward in the night of August 2 and started a rapid deepening cycle on August 3. It formed a sturdy eyewall as the eye deepened and enlarged. The JTWC's estimated intensity (maximum 1-minute average wind speed) was adjusted upwards from 105 knots (195 km/h) at 2 pm to 135 knots (250 km/h) at 8 pm, while the JMA's estimated intensity (maximum 10-minute average wind speed) was at 100 knots (185 km/h). By that time, SOUDELOR had already developed an excellent vertical structure. Infrared satellite images clearly demostrated this, where a complete ring of convections with cloud-top temperatures of less than -80 degrees was established. The eye continued to warm during the night and prompted agencies to revise their intensities further. The JTWC estimated SOUDELOR's intensity at 155 knots (287 km/h) at 2 am August 4, the equivalent of a Dvorak number of T7.5. The JMA's estimated intensity at the same time was 115 knots (213 km/h). SOUDELOR entered the HKO's area of responsibility during the morning; the Observatory estimated SOUDELOR's intensity at 230 km/h (124 knots).

However, SOUDELOR's excellent structure did not persist for long. Water vapour imageries revealed slightly increased subsidence to the northwest of the storm, and this was responsible for SOUDELOR's weakening on August 4. Despite maintaining a clear eye, SOUDELOR's central dense overcast warmed. The JTWC reduced its estimated intensity to 140 knots (still category 5, 259 km/h) at 2 pm and further to 130 knots (241 km/h) 12 hours later. Although the storm was on its weakening trend, a slight re-intensification was expected as the storm neared Taiwan due to higher sea temperatures just offshore.

The subtropical ridge was very stable throughout and SOUDELOR moved WNW steadily. However, SOUDELOR moved due west for a period of time between August 5 and 6. Its projected landfall location was therefore shifted south, from northern to central Taiwan. Its intensity reached a local minimum early on August 6. As it reached warmer seas, it intensified slightly later that day; its wind radius also widened substantially. Taiwan's CWB issued a typhoon sea warning at 11:30 am, and upgraded it into a land warning at 8:30 pm that day. SOUDELOR's storm radius was expected to cover most of the Island.

SOUDELOR moved more poleward on August 7; it made landfall at Hualien near 4:40 am on August 8. Incidentally, this was also the day six years ago when typhoon MORAKOT impacted Hualien and its subsequent rainfall devastated much of the Island. Upon landfall, SOUDELOR's eye quickly collapsed while its core redeveloped at a location to the southwest of the original centre, in Yunlin County. Winds recorded at various locations surpassed previous records. SOUDELOR emerged into the Taiwan Strait near noon, still as a typhoon. During SOUDELOR's approach, at least 9 people were killed in Taiwan.

Although not directly affected by the storm, subsidence associated with SOUDELOR resulted in very hot and hazy weather in southern Guangdong. Worsened air quality led to the air quality health index reaching 10+ at all local recording stations on August 7. The mercury reached 36.3 degrees at the HKO near 4 pm August 8, breaking the previous maximum air temperature record of 36.1 reached both in 1900 and 1990. Local temperatures were generally above 35 degrees that afternoon; Happy Valley topped the table for that day at 37.9 degrees, closely followed by 37.8 degrees at Sheung Shui.

After entering sea, SOUDELOR turned north before resuming NW motion, recovering the southwest dip due to the splitting of its centre in Taiwan. The storm made a second landfall at around 10:10 pm August 8 near Putian, Fujian with maximum winds of around 38 m/s (137 km/h) near its centre. SOUDELOR turned north after landfall as it reached the western periphery of the subtropical ridge. It gradually weakened into a tropical storm on August 9 and into an area of low pressure the next day. Its remnants turned northeast in Anhui province and entered the East China Sea on August 11, gradually becoming extratropical.

蘇迪羅的雛型於 7 月底在威克島西南發展,於 30 日被聯合颱風警報中心升格為熱帶低氣壓 13W。13W 於日間變得更為緊密,日本氣象廳當晚將其升格為熱帶風暴,被命名為蘇迪羅。由於副熱帶高壓脊盤據於蘇迪羅以北的海洋,風暴路徑預測顯得頗為容易。除預測尾段略為分散外,數值模式預報非常一致,均認為蘇迪羅將沿副高底部向西北偏西移動。

蘇迪羅於 31 日向偏西移動,但風暴未能有效整合對流雲帶,因此未有明顯增強。此情況於 8 月 1 日維持,但隨著高空輻散改善,蘇迪羅的對流活動於當晚見便活躍。它於 2 日初段增強為強烈熱帶風暴,並於下午進一步增強為颱風。

風暴於 2 日晚在關島以北約 300 公里掠過,其後風暴路徑有所北偏,並於 3 日開始快速增強周期,其風眼變深變大,眼牆變得堅挺。聯合颱風警報中心對蘇迪羅的估計強度 (最高一分鐘平均風速) 由當天下午 2 時的 105 節 (每小時 195 公里) 上調至下午 8 時的 135 節 (每小時 250 公里),而日本氣象廳所給予的強度 (最高十分鐘平均風速) 則為 100 節 (每小時 185 公里)。當時蘇迪羅的垂直結構已經十分成熟,紅外線雲圖清楚顯示風暴建立出一環狀對流區域,其雲頂溫度跌至 -80 度以下。風眼於當晚繼續變暖,各氣象台進一步調高其強度。聯合颱風警報中心於 4 日上午 2 時估計蘇迪羅風速達 155 節 (每小時 287 公里),即德沃夏克強度表中 T 號碼 7.5 之對應強度。與此同時,日本氣象廳估計強度則為 115 節 (每小時 213 公里)。蘇迪羅於早上進入香港天文台的責任範圍,而天文台所給予的強度是每小時 230 公里 (124 節)。

可是,蘇迪羅極佳的結構並未能維持。從水氣圖可見,風暴西北面的下沉氣流略為加強,令蘇迪羅於 4 日減弱。雖然風眼仍然清晰,但蘇迪羅的中心密集雲區雲頂溫度有所提高。聯合颱風警報中心遂於下午 2 時將其強度下調至 140 節 (每小時 259 公里,仍屬五級強度),並於 12 小時後進一步下調為 130 節 (每小時 241 公里)。雖然風暴呈減弱趨勢,但由於台灣對開海域海溫較高,它有機會於登陸前再次增強。

由於副熱帶高壓脊型態及強度較穩定,蘇迪羅因此持續向西北偏西移動。可是風暴於 5 至 6 日間有一段時間向正西移動,令各氣象台向南調整其預測登陸點,由台灣北部修訂為中部。風暴強度於 6 日早段到達低點;隨著蘇迪羅進入較暖海域,它於當天較後時間略為增強,其風圈亦明顯擴闊。台灣中央氣象局於 6 日早上 11 時 30 分發出海上颱風警報,並於晚上 8 時 30 分發出陸上颱風警報,預計蘇迪羅的暴風圈將籠罩整個台灣。

蘇迪羅的移向於 7 日北偏,並於 8 日上午約 4 時 40 分登陸花蓮一帶,這正是 6 年前颱風莫拉克登陸台灣、大雨對該島造成嚴重破壞的日子。蘇迪羅的風眼於登陸後跨速崩潰,其中心結構於西南面的雲林縣重組。蘇迪羅快速通過台灣,於中午時份以颱風強度進入台灣海峽。風暴經過台灣期間,多處地方錄得破紀錄的風速,最少 9 人死亡。

雖然廣東南部未受蘇迪羅直接影響,但與其相關的下沉氣流令該區出現酷熱及有煙霞的天氣。8 月 7 日,香港各空氣質素監測站均錄得空氣質素健康指數達 10+ 的嚴重水平。天文台於 8 日下午約 4 時錄得當天最高氣溫 36.3 度,打破 1900 及 1990 年 36.1 度的高溫紀錄。當天下午本港氣溫普遍達 35 度,其中跑馬地的 37.9 度為眾站之首,上水以 37.8 度緊隨其後。

入海後,蘇迪羅明顯北移,修復其中心於台灣中部分裂時的西南移向,其後風暴回復向西北移動。風暴於 8 日晚上約 10 時 10 分登陸福建莆田,近中心最高風速約為每秒 38 米 (每小時 137 公里)。隨著蘇迪羅到達副高西部,它登陸後逐漸北轉。風暴於 9 日減弱為熱帶風暴,翌日進一步減弱為低壓區。它的殘餘於安徽省轉向東北移動,於 11 日進入東海並逐漸變成溫帶系統。

Figures 圖片

Figure 1 - Satellite image of SOUDELOR at formation
圖 1 - 蘇迪羅形成時之衛星雲圖

Figure 2 - Steering flow chart at 8 am August 2
圖 2 - 8 月 2 日的駛流場圖

Figure 3 - Forecast tracks from official agencies at 8 am August 4
圖 3 - 各氣象台於 8 月 4 日上午 8 時之預測路徑圖

Figure 4 - Satellite image showing SOUDELOR's mature central dense overcast
圖 4 - 衛星圖片顯示蘇迪羅的中心密集雲區結構成熟

Figure 5 - Estimated wind field chart at 8 am August 4
圖 5 - 蘇迪羅於 8 月 4 日之估算風場圖

Figure 6 - Wind field analysis at around 10 am August 7, showing SOUDELOR's wide wind radii
圖 6 - 8 月 7 日早上約 10 時之風場分析,顯示蘇迪羅的風圈廣闊

Figures 7a and 7b - Radar images of SOUDELOR just prior to landfall (left) and crossing central Taiwan (right)
圖 7a 及 7b - 蘇迪羅接近登陸 (左) 及橫過台灣 (右) 時之雷達圖

Figure 8 - Air temperatures recorded at the HK Observatory between August 8 and 9
圖 8 - 香港天文台於 8 月 8 及 9 日錄得的氣溫

Figure 9 - Maximum air temperature across the territory on August 8
圖 9 - 8 月 8 日本港各區的最高氣溫

Other Data 其他數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
15073000 137N1607E 025
15073006 136N1600E 030
15073012 136N1594E 035
15073018 136N1590E 035
15073100 136N1585E 040
15073106 134N1568E 040
15073112 134N1559E 040
15073118 134N1549E 040
15080100 136N1533E 040
15080106 140N1521E 040
15080112 141N1508E 045
15080118 144N1497E 050
15080200 146N1482E 055
15080206 148N1468E 065
15080212 151N1459E 080
15080218 156N1449E 100
15080300 162N1440E 110
15080306 169N1430E 110
15080312 174N1419E 135
15080318 178N1407E 155
15080400 183N1396E 150
15080406 186N1383E 140
15080412 189N1372E 135
15080418 193N1361E 125
15080500 195N1349E 115
15080506 200N1337E 110
15080512 200N1326E 100
15080518 201N1315E 095
15080600 205N1302E 095
15080606 209N1293E 095
15080612 212N1281E 100
15080618 215N1268E 105
15080700 219N1257E 105
15080706 224N1248E 110
15080712 229N1238E 105
15080718 237N1226E 105
15080721 241N1216E 100
15080800 237N1206E 095
15080812 239N1199E 085
15080818 248N1195E 075
15080821 254N1184E 060
15080900 259N1175E 050
15080906 268N1168E 040
15080912 277N1164E 030

Table 2: Track data from JTWC:
表二 : 聯合颱風警報中心之路徑資料

ID       Name  YYMMDD ZZZZ  Lat    Long   Basin Wind Pres
13W   SOUDELOR 150809 0600  26.6N  116.9E WPAC   35   996
13W SOUDELOR 150809 0000 25.9N 117.6E WPAC 35 996
13W SOUDELOR 150808 1800 25.5N 118.8E WPAC 45 989
13W SOUDELOR 150808 1200 24.6N 119.3E WPAC 65 974
13W SOUDELOR 150808 1200 24.6N 119.3E WPAC 65 974
13W SOUDELOR 150808 0600 24.1N 120.0E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150808 0600 24.1N 120.0E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150808 0600 24.1N 120.0E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150808 0000 24.3N 121.5E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1800 23.6N 122.6E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1800 23.6N 122.6E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1800 23.6N 122.6E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1200 22.9N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1200 22.9N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 1200 22.9N 123.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0600 22.4N 124.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0600 22.4N 124.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0600 22.4N 124.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0000 21.9N 125.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0000 21.9N 125.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150807 0000 21.9N 125.8E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1800 21.5N 126.8E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1800 21.5N 126.8E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1800 21.5N 126.8E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1200 21.1N 128.1E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1200 21.1N 128.1E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 1200 21.1N 128.1E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0600 20.9N 129.2E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0600 20.9N 129.2E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0600 20.9N 129.2E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0000 20.4N 130.3E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0000 20.4N 130.3E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150806 0000 20.4N 130.3E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1800 20.1N 131.5E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1800 20.1N 131.5E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1800 20.1N 131.5E WPAC 95 952
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1200 20.0N 132.6E WPAC 100 948
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1200 20.0N 132.6E WPAC 100 948
13W SOUDELOR 150805 1200 20.0N 132.6E WPAC 100 948
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0600 19.8N 133.7E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0600 19.8N 133.7E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0600 19.8N 133.7E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0000 19.5N 134.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0000 19.5N 134.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150805 0000 19.5N 134.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1800 19.3N 136.1E WPAC 130 926
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1800 19.3N 136.1E WPAC 130 926
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1800 19.3N 136.1E WPAC 130 926
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1200 18.8N 137.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1200 18.8N 137.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 1200 18.8N 137.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0600 18.6N 138.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0600 18.6N 138.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0600 18.6N 138.3E WPAC 140 918
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0000 18.2N 139.6E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0000 18.2N 139.6E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150804 0000 18.2N 139.6E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1800 17.8N 140.7E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1800 17.8N 140.7E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1800 17.8N 140.7E WPAC 155 907
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1200 17.5N 141.8E WPAC 135 922
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1200 17.5N 141.8E WPAC 135 922
13W SOUDELOR 150803 1200 17.5N 141.8E WPAC 135 922
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0600 16.9N 142.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0600 16.9N 142.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0600 16.9N 142.9E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0000 16.2N 144.1E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0000 16.2N 144.1E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150803 0000 16.2N 144.1E WPAC 115 937
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1800 15.6N 145.0E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1800 15.6N 145.0E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1800 15.6N 145.0E WPAC 105 944
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1200 15.1N 145.9E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1200 15.1N 145.9E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150802 1200 15.1N 145.9E WPAC 90 956
13W SOUDELOR 150802 0600 14.8N 146.8E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150802 0600 14.8N 146.8E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150802 0600 14.8N 146.8E WPAC 75 967
13W SOUDELOR 150802 0000 14.6N 148.3E WPAC 60 978
13W SOUDELOR 150802 0000 14.6N 148.3E WPAC 60 978
13W SOUDELOR 150801 1800 14.2N 149.8E WPAC 50 985
13W SOUDELOR 150801 1200 14.1N 150.8E WPAC 45 989
13W SOUDELOR 150801 0600 14.0N 152.1E WPAC 40 993
13W SOUDELOR 150801 0000 13.8N 153.0E WPAC 35 996
13W SOUDELOR 150731 1800 13.6N 154.3E WPAC 35 996
13W SOUDELOR 150731 1200 13.6N 155.6E WPAC 35 996
13W SOUDELOR 150731 0600 13.6N 156.6E WPAC 40 993
13W SOUDELOR 150731 0000 13.6N 157.6E WPAC 40 993
13W SOUDELOR 150730 1800 13.7N 158.6E WPAC 40 993
13W SOUDELOR 150730 1200 13.7N 159.1E WPAC 35 996
13W SOUDELOR 150730 0600 13.6N 159.9E WPAC 30 1000
13W SOUDELOR 150730 0000 12.7N 161.0E WPAC 25 1004
13W SOUDELOR 150729 1800 12.4N 161.7E WPAC 20 1007
13W SOUDELOR 150729 1200 12.3N 162.7E WPAC 20 1006
13W SOUDELOR 150729 0600 12.4N 163.9E WPAC 20 1006
13W SOUDELOR 150729 0000 12.4N 165.8E WPAC 15 1006
13W SOUDELOR 150728 1800 12.8N 167.9E WPAC 15 1007
13W SOUDELOR 150728 1200 13.3N 169.8E WPAC 15 1010
13W SOUDELOR 150728 0600 13.3N 171.6E WPAC 15 1006
13W SOUDELOR 150728 0000 13.3N 173.2E WPAC 15 1010
13W SOUDELOR 150727 1800 13.4N 175.0E WPAC 15 1010

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Tue Nov 12 2019 13:51:51 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Aug 18 2015

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