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201606W (NIDA 妮妲) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on August 7, 2016; final version issued on August 27, 2016)
(初稿於 2016 年 8 月 7 日發出,最後版本於 2016 年 8 月 27 日上載)

Brief profile of NIDA 妮妲小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 06W
International number 國際編號 1604
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2016/07/29 20 HKT - 2016/08/03 08 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 4.50 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 80 knots 節 (Category 1 Typhoon 一級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 963 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
8 (NW, SW) (Gale or Storm Signal 烈風或暴風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近距離 (如適用)
NNE 40 km (real-time warning 實時報告) / NNW 40 km (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台所示之最接近時間 (如適用)
2016/08/02 05 HKT (real-time warning and TC report 實時報告及熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO (if applicable)
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓 (如適用)
984.5 hPa 百帕 (2016/08/02 03:42 HKT)

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動方向和速度
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2016/07/31 (SUN) 22:10 HKT ESE 790 km NW/WNW at 25 km/h 110 km/h (60 knots, STS)
2016/08/01 (MON) 11:40 HKT ESE 450 km NW/WNW at 25 km/h 120 km/h (65 knots, T)
2016/08/01 (MON) 20:40 HKT ESE 220 km NW/WNW at 25 km/h 130 km/h (70 knots, T)
2016/08/02 (TUE) 04:40 HKT NNE 40 km WNW at 25 km/h 120 km/h (65 knots, T)
2016/08/02 (TUE) 12:40 HKT NW 170 km WNW at 22 km/h 85 km/h (45 knots, TS)
2016/08/02 (TUE) 17:10 HKT NW 260 km WNW at 20 km/h 65 km/h (35 knots, TS)

Figure 圖:

(Track figure courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

Percentile rank among storms with #8 Signal (at compilation of this review)*:
發出八號信號之風暴中的百分等級 (編寫此回顧之時)*:

*This measures the relative wind strength in Hong Kong caused by this storm compared with others that share the same signal. 指標顯示此風暴相對於其他發出同樣信號的風暴為香港帶來之風力強度

For more information, please refer to Wind Speed Data for TCs that Have Affected Hong Kong. 更多資訊載於 影響香港氣旋之風速數據

  Overall:
總計:
54
  Moderate
中等
Component Ranks 分部等級
  Reference stations:
參考站:
57
  Moderate
中等
  Victoria Harbour:
維多利亞港:
66
  Moderately strong
中等偏強
  Urban:
市區:
46
  Moderate
中等
  Offshore & high ground
離岸和高地:
49
  Moderate
中等

Cyclones that attained similar rating (with signal #8): UTOR (2001)
相近級別之熱帶氣旋 (八號信號):尤特 (2001)

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC track from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins on NIDA 本站有關妮妲的發佈

Please click here for bulletins on NIDA. 請按這裡

Storm Formation and Development 氣旋形成和發展

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

NIDA is the first tropical cyclone to necessitate the #8 Gale or Storm Signal in Hong Kong this year.

Long before the formation of NIDA (even before the formation of MIRINAE which necessitated tropical cyclone signals in Hong Kong as well), numerical models were able to initialize a system east of the Philippines; some models even tracked the storm into northern South China Sea. This led to widespread speculation of a potential tropical cyclone affecting Hong Kong, with some newspapers reporting such possibility as early as July 25.

Actual development of the convective patch in the Philippine Sea took place on July 28. The system, then known as disturbance 96W, gained spiraling characteristics that day and prompted the JTWC to issue a tropical cyclone formation alert in the morning of July 29. The HKO was also aware of the potential threat of this system and mentioned in the 9-day weather report that tropical cyclone formation was expected and its track was uncertain at that moment. The JMA issued the gale warning in the afternoon. Both the JTWC and HKO upgraded 96W into a tropical depression that night; the disturbance became tropical depression 06W as it tracked NW to NNW east of the Philippines. Both agencies predicted 06W to enter the South China Sea two to three days later, making landfall in southern Guangdong. The JTWC even predicted the storm to be at typhoon strength and as close as 25 NM (46 km) from the territory, passing to the southwest. The consensus in forecast track is likely a result of the agreement between models, with the ECMWF model consistently predicting a landfall near the Pearl River Delta region.

06W drifted north and started to take on a more westerly course on July 30 along the southwestern periphery of the subtropical ridge. Its spiraling cloud bands have also improved in appearance; the JMA upgraded 06W into a tropical storm at 8 pm, naming it NIDA. Because of NIDA's possible close approach, the HKO issued a special weather alert which urged the public to refer closely to their latest forecast and be prepared. It also published a blog post that demonstrated the uncertainty of numerical model forecast tracks and explained how a landfall west of Hong Kong would be more damaging than one to the east.

NIDA continued to move WNW in the later part of July 30 and 31. Various agencies upgraded NIDA into a severe tropical storm at 8 am July 31; the storm made landfall at northeastern Luzon around 6 hours later, just clipping the tip of the Island. As NIDA looks poised to enter the South China Sea overnight, the HKO indicated that the #1 Standby Signal would be considered that night. The Signal was issued at 10:10 pm July 31, right after the storm entered Hong Kong's 800 km radius.

妮妲為本年首個令香港天文台發出八號烈風或暴風信號的熱帶氣旋。

早於妮妲形成以前,甚至是前一個、同樣令天文台發出熱帶氣旋警告的風暴銀河形成前,數值預報模式已預示菲律賓以東海域將有熱帶系統發展,部分更預測該氣旋會進入南海北部。這令部分市民關注或有熱帶氣旋靠近本港,此消息甚至早於 7 月 25 日已被傳媒報導

於菲律賓以東海域的對流雲團至 28 日左右才見實際發展。該擾動 (96W) 當天螺旋性漸長,聯合颱風警報中心遂於 29 日早上為其發出熱帶氣旋形成警報。香港天文台亦留意該系統的發展,於其九天天氣預報中表示將有熱帶氣旋形成,但路徑存在不確定因素。日本氣象廳於當天下午發出烈風警報,而香港天文台及聯合颱風警報中心均於當晚將 96W 升格為熱帶低氣壓,後者給予編號 06W。06W 形成初時向西北至西北偏北移動,橫過菲律賓以東海域,兩間機構均預測 06W 會於兩三日後進入南海,並於廣東南部登陸。聯合颱風警報中心甚至預測風暴會增強至颱風強度,並於香港西南約 25 海里 (46 公里) 處掠過。機構對 06W 的路徑預測相當接近,相信是因為數值模式預測較為一致,其中尤以歐洲中期天氣預報中心的模式結果為甚,多次預料風暴會於珠江三角洲一帶登陸。

06W 繼續北飄,並於 30 日開始採取較為偏西的路徑,沿副熱帶高壓脊西南部移動。隨著風暴的螺旋雲帶進一步整固,日本氣象廳於當晚 8 時將其升格為熱帶風暴,並命名為妮妲。由於妮妲有可能非常接近香港,天文台發出特別天氣提示,呼籲市民留意熱帶氣旋發展並做好準備。天文台亦發報網誌,顯示數值預報模式之預測路徑仍有不確定性,並解釋為何氣旋於香港以西登陸會比以東登陸更具破壞力。

妮妲於 30 日後段及 31 日繼續向西北偏西移動。大多氣象機構於 31 日早上 8 時將妮妲升格為強烈熱帶風暴,而妮妲於約 6 小時後登陸並擦過呂宋東北部。因妮妲將於晚間進入南海,香港天文台表示將於當晚考慮發出一號戒備信號,而結果該信號於晚上 10 時 10 分、妮妲闖進本港 800 公里範圍時發出

Figure 1 - On July 25, several numerical models predicted a tropical cyclone to form east of the Philippines and move into the South China Sea later
圖 1 - 7 月 25 日部分數值模式預料一熱帶氣旋將於菲律賓以東形成,其後進入南海

Figure 2 - Satellite image showing 06W at formation
圖 2 - 06W 初形成時之衛星雲圖

Figure 3 - Wind field scan on July 29 showing clearly 06W's low-level circulation centre
圖 3 - 7 月 29 日的風場掃描清楚顯示 06W 的低層環流中心


Figures 4a and 4b - Initial forecast tracks from the JTWC and HKO
圖 4a 及 4b - 聯合颱風警報中心及香港天文台首次發報之路徑圖

Figure 5 - Steering flow chart at 8 am August 1
圖 5 - 8 月 1 日早上 8 時之駛流圖

Figures 6a and 6b - Forecast tracks from different official agencies on July 30 and August 1
圖 6a 及 6b - 各官方氣象台於 7 月 30 及 8 月 1 日的預測路徑圖

Entering South China Sea and Approaching Southern China 進入南海並靠近華南

Although NIDA's centre mostly avoided the landmass, its outer air flow and convections were somewhat disrupted by Luzon's mountains; convections in its northern semicircle diminished and the storm's core area enlarged in an attempt to build a banding eye. The storm was moving WNW and was predicted to turn more equatorward as it reached the base of the subtropical ridge that extended into China at that time. Models have come to even better agreement on a landfall extremely close to Hong Kong; the speed was adjusted upwards, leading to a projected landfall near or before dawn on August 2. The HKO explained that local weather would deteriorate rapidly late Monday (August 1) to early Tuesday (August 2). Both the HKO and NMC of China predicted NIDA to intensify into a severe typhoon at landfall.

NIDA gained energy in the South China Sea and intensified into a typhoon early on August 1. The HKO issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 11:40 am when NIDA was 450 km to the ESE. Due to NIDA's quick approach, the HKO immediately mentioned that the #8 Signal would be considered between 6 and 10 pm, and also reminded the public of the possibility of elevated sea levels due to storm surge superimposed on the astronomical high tide that would occur in the morning the next day. As winds were expected to strengthen later on August 1, various notices on suspension of services were disseminated. Handling of empty cargoes had already been suspended at 8 am that morning, while kindergartens and some special schools had their afternoon sessions called off due to the #3 Signal. Later, several airlines announced the temporary suspension of flights from 10 pm.

Due to NIDA's subsidence, it was very hot in Hong Kong with haze on August 1. The Air Quality Health Index at many places reached 10 or above, meaning a short-term health risk in the "serious" category. Later in the afternoon, NIDA skirted pass the Pratas Islands at a distance of around 80 km; a sea level pressure of 982.7 hPa was recorded. The HKO later revealed that a reconnaissance mission was conducted that afternoon and confirmed the presence of hurricane force winds near the eyewall. As NIDA drew near, the HKO issued the Pre-No. 8 Special Announcement at 6:40 pm, indicating that the #8 Signal would be issued at most two hours later. It should be noted that Shenzhen had already issued the red typhoon alert (which warned of the presence of force 12 winds) at 5 pm, while the SMG of Macau issued the #3 Signal only as late as 7 pm that night.

The #8 Northwest Gale or Storm Signal was issued at 8:40 pm August 1, when NIDA was 220 km ESE of Hong Kong. Locally, northwesterly winds were picking up at the time of announcement, but were still relatively weak except for exposed stations such as Waglan Island and Tate's Cairn, where strong winds were blowing. Domestic ferry services were gradually suspended early that night. The more intense rainbands associated with NIDA's western eyewall approached the territory after 10 pm, resulting in a rapid surge in wind speed at most places. Strong winds were observed at Chek Lap Kok, Kai Tak, Lau Fau Shan, Peng Chau, Sai Kung and Sha Chau, and gale force winds were observed at Waglan Island and Tate's Cairn.

The HKO warned that NIDA would pass within 100 km of Hong Kong overnight; this was revised to 50 km later in the night and the HKO even hinted at the possibility of higher signals in the tropical cyclone bulletin at 1 am August 2.

雖然妮妲的中心大致避開陸地,但其外圍環流及風場因觸碰呂宋高山而受阻。妮妲北半圓的對流減弱,其中心部分擴大,並嘗試建立雲捲風眼。風暴向西北偏西移動,由於副熱帶高壓脊西伸至中國內陸,預測妮妲到達該脊南沿時移向會漸轉偏西。至此,數值模式結果更趨一致,風暴將於香港近距離登陸,而其移速稍為提高,令風暴於 8 月 2 日破曉或之前登陸。香港天文台表示本港天氣會於周一 (8 月 1 日) 後段至周二 (8 月 2 日) 初段迅速轉壞。香港天文台及中國中央氣象台均預料妮妲會於登陸前增強至強颱風級別。

妮妲於南海獲得能量,於 8 月 1 日早上增強為颱風。天文台於上午 11 時 40 分發出三號強風信號,當時妮妲位於香港東南偏東約 450 公里。由於妮妲來勢洶洶,天文台立即表示將於下午 6 至 10 時考慮改發八號信號,並提醒市民翌日早上風暴潮或與天文大潮疊加,造成海水上漲。由於預測風勢將於 1 日較後時間加強,部分機構開始發報服務暫停的消息。吉櫃交收已於當日早上 8 時暫停,而幼稚園及部分特殊學校因三號信號發出而需取消下午課。其後,部分航空公司亦宣布離港及抵港航班將於晚上 10 時取消。

受妮妲的外圍下沉氣流影響,香港於 1 日天氣酷熱並有煙霞,多區空氣質素健康指數上升至 10 或以上,表示短期健康風險達嚴重級別。下午妮妲靠近東沙島,兩者距離約 80 公里,該地錄得海平面氣壓 982.7 百帕。香港天文台其後表示當天下午曾派飛機到達妮妲的中心,確認其眼牆附近吹颶風。妮妲繼續靠近,天文台於下午 6 時 40 分發出預警八號熱帶氣旋警告信號之特別報告,表示八號信號最遲會於兩小時後發出。值得留意的是深圳已於下午 5 時發出紅色颱風預警 (即預計會受 12 級風吹襲),至於澳門地球物理暨氣象局則遲至當晚 7 時才懸掛三號風球。

香港天文台於 1 日晚上 8 時 40 分發出八號西北烈風或暴風信號,妮妲當時位於香港東南偏東約 220 公里。香港各地西北風開始增強,但除較空曠站點如橫瀾島及大老山錄得強風外,其他風速站風勢仍較弱。本地渡輪服務於當晚陸續暫停。與妮妲西面眼牆相關的較強雲雨帶於晚上 10 時過後靠近,令各區風勢迅速增強。赤鱲角、啟德、流浮山、坪洲、西貢及沙洲等地開始吹強風,橫瀾島及大老山吹烈風。

天文台警告妮妲將於本港 100 公里內掠過,其後更修訂為 50 公里內,並於 2 日上午 1 時的熱帶氣旋警報中表示有可能需要改發更高信號

Figure 7 - Wind field scan at around 10 pm August 1; Hong Kong was not yet affected by gales
圖 7 - 8 月 1 日晚上近 10 時之風場掃描顯示香港仍未受烈風吹襲

Figure 8 - Satellite image showing NIDA approaching the Pearl River Estuary
圖 8 - 衛星雲圖顯示妮妲正靠近珠江口

Landfall and Dissipation 登陸及消散

In the first few hours of August 2, some places saw a momentary drop in wind speed as NIDA's large eye covered part of the territory. The storm made landfall at Dapeng Peninsula at around 3:30 am, and was the closest to Hong Kong as it crossed Shenzhen, passing at some 40 km NNE of the HKO. As wind direction backed, the HKO issued the #8 Southwest Gale or Storm Signal at 4:40 am, replacing the Northwest Signal. NIDA's southeastern eyewall swept past Hong Kong near dawn; many stations recorded another surge in wind speed. The strongest winds were generally observed in these few hours, with storm force winds blowing at Green Island, Ngong Ping and Waglan Island, and gale force winds at Chek Lap Kok, Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan, Sha Chau and Tai Mei Tuk. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was also issued at 5:20 am as widespread rain was recorded. The HKO reported that sea levels were already 0.5 m higher than normal and were expected to rise even higher in the morning, leading to flooding in low-lying areas. Note that the NMC upgraded NIDA into a severe typhoon prior to landfall and estimated winds were in the region of 42 m/s (151 km/h). The HKO maintained its assessment that NIDA was only a marginal typhoon (120 km/h). Even though NIDA's stronger southeast eyewall swept across the territory, it is believed that the storm had already weakened slightly following landfall and, as Hong Kong was situated within the navigable semicircle, sustained storm force winds were not generally observed during its passage.

Due to the adverse weather, schools and most commercial activities were suspended in the morning of August 2. The Special Announcement on Flooding in the Northern New Territories and landslip warning were issued just after 8 am. The water level was around 3.5 m above chart datum at Tsim Bei Tsui near 9 am, 0.7 m higher than the predicted tide. NIDA's eye collapsed upon landfall and the storm weakened into a severe tropical storm as it crossed the Pearl River Estuary, reaching the Zhongshan-Guangzhou area. As winds diminished in the morning, the HKO indicated that lower signals would be considered after midday, and was refined to between noon and 2 pm (and further to 1 pm) later that morning. NIDA's strongest rain bands moved to the west of Hong Kong and the Amber Rainstorm Warning was cancelled at 10:45 am. More than 100 mm of rainfall were recorded over most parts of the territory on August 2.

NIDA weakened into a tropical storm near noon. Wind speed at most places dropped to strong force or below near that time, and the #3 Strong Wind Signal was issued at 12:40 pm, replacing the #8 Signal. The landslip warning was also cancelled, while the Special Announcement on Flooding in the Northern New Territories was cancelled earlier at 11:40 am. Most transport services resumed early in the afternoon as commuters reported to work after the cancellation of the #8 Signal. The #3 Signal did not last long and was cancelled at 5:10 pm when NIDA was 260 km northwest of the territory. By that time local winds were mostly southerly and no different from normal.

NIDA continued to make its way inland, weakened into a tropical depression early on August 3 in Guangxi, and further into an area of low pressure several hours later.

8 月 2 日首數小時,由於妮妲風眼較大,其一部分進入香港境內,令部分地區風勢短暫緩和。妮妲於上午約 3 時 30 分登陸大鵬半島,其後橫過深圳,於香港天文台東北偏北約 40 公里處掠過。隨著風向逆轉,天文台於上午 4 時 40 分改發八號西南烈風或暴風信號,取代西北信號。妮妲的東南眼牆於日出時份掃過香港,多數地區風力再度上揚,並錄得妮妲襲港期間之最高風速。其中,青洲、昂坪及橫瀾島吹暴風,而赤鱲角、長洲、流浮山、沙洲及大美督則吹烈風。本港各區下大雨,天文台於上午 5 時 20 分發出黃色暴雨警告。天文台指出部分地區海平面已比正常高半米,預料會於早上進一步上升,低窪地區可能出現水浸。留意中國中央氣象台於妮妲登陸前將其升格為強颱風,估計登陸時風速達每秒 42 米 (每小時 151 公里)。香港天文台則維持其對妮妲颱風下限 (每小時 120 公里) 的強度估計。雖然妮妲較強的東南眼牆掃過香港,但相信風暴登陸時已經略為減弱,加上香港處於妮妲之可航半圓,風暴掠過時並未普遍錄得持續暴風風力。

由於天氣惡劣,2 日上午學校停課,大多數商業活動暫停。天文台於上午 8 時過後先後發出新界北部水浸特別報告山泥傾瀉警告;上午 9 時,尖鼻嘴的海水高度達海圖基準面以上 3.5 米,比正常潮水高度高 0.7 米。妮妲的風眼於登陸後崩潰,風暴早上橫過珠江口,到達中山及廣州一帶,並減弱為強烈熱帶風暴。隨著風勢於早上緩和,天文台表示將於中午後考慮改發較低信號,其後將時間範圍收窄至中午至下午 2 時 (稍後再修訂至 1 時)。與妮妲相關最強的雨帶其後移至香港以西,黃色暴雨警告於上午 10 時 45 分取消。8 月 2 日本港多處地方累計錄得超過 100 毫米雨量。

妮妲於正午減弱為熱帶風暴,本港普遍地區風力下降至強風或以下,天文台於下午 12 時 40 分改發三號強風信號,取代八號信號。山泥傾瀉警告亦於同時取消,而新界北部水浸特別報告則已於上午 11 時 40 分取消。大部分公共交通服務於下午早段恢復運作,市民急於在八號信號取消後回到工作崗位。三號信號維持不久後於下午 5 時 10 分亦告取消,當時妮妲位於香港西北約 260 公里,本港普遍吹南風,風力與平時相若。

妮妲繼續深入內陸,於 3 日早段在廣西減弱為熱帶低氣壓,數小時後進一步減弱為低壓區

Figure 9 - Calculated wind field at 2 am August 2; storm force winds were confined to NIDA's dangerous semicircle
圖 9 - 8 月 2 日上午 2 時之估算風場圖顯示暴風只局限於妮妲的危險半圓

Figure 10 - Mean sea level pressure distribution soon after NIDA made landfall
圖 10 - 妮妲登陸後不久之平均海平面氣壓分布圖

Figure 11 - HKO's real-time position fix for NIDA between midnight and noon August 2. Plotted using Google Maps.
圖 11 - 香港天文台於 8 月 2 日午夜至中午對妮妲的實時定位。利用 Google Maps 繪製。


Figures 12a to 12f - Radar images at 3-hour intervals from 7 pm August 1 to 10 am the next day
圖 12a 至 12f - 8 月 1 日下午 7 時至翌日上午 10 時每三小時之雷達圖


Figures 13a to 13f - Local wind disitribution maps at 3-hour intervals from 7 pm August 1 to 10 am the next day
圖 13a 至 13f - 8 月 1 日下午 7 時至翌日上午 10 時每三小時之本港風勢分布圖




Figures 14a to 14d - Wind speed time series at Chek Lap Kok, Green Island, Sai Kung and Waglan Island during NIDA's approach
圖 14a 至 14d - 赤鱲角、青洲、西貢及橫瀾島於妮妲襲港時的風速時間序列圖

Figure 15 - Sea level pressure time series at the Hong Kong Observatory
圖 15 - 香港天文台的海平面氣壓時間序列圖

Figure 16 - Local total rainfall distribution map for August 2
圖 16 - 8 月 2 日本港總雨量分布圖

NIDA's Effect on Hong Kong and Controversy in Macau 妮妲對香港的影響及澳門引發之爭論

Despite NIDA's close approach, winds were somewhat lighter than expected; this helped to reduce casualties and damage resulting from the storm. The government received two reports of flooding, one report of landslide and more than 400 reports of fallen trees. Seven people were injured during NIDA's approach and sought medical attention at the Accident and Emergency Departments at public hospitals. More than 500 flights were rescheduled.

In Macau, however, the #3 Strong Wind Signal was issued throughout. This sparked criticism as many felt that conditions in the morning of August 2 were unsuitable for commute and gales were indeed recorded on the bridges connecting Macau and Taipa. The director of the SMG and Secretariat for Transport and Public Works apologized for the miscommunication and inadequacy in handling the matter. Following this incident, concerns regarding the governance within the SMG were raised.

雖然妮妲正面吹襲本港,但風勢比預期弱,對香港的影響得以減輕。風暴吹襲期間,政府共接獲兩宗水浸報告、一宗山泥傾瀉報告及超過 400 宗塌樹報告;七人於風暴襲港時受傷,前往公立醫院急症室求診。超過 500 班航班需要重新編配。

澳門方面,妮妲吹襲時只懸掛三號風球,部分市民認為 8 月 2 日早上路面情況惡劣,加上連接澳門及氹仔的大橋曾錄得烈風,不掛八號風球的決定引起爭議。氣象局局長及運輸工務司司長期後為風暴期間溝通不足及處理事件不善致歉,而此事件隨後引發市民對氣象局的內部管治狀況提出質疑。

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

Station
風速站
Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
最高十分鐘平均風速
Beaufort classification
蒲福氏風級分類
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角 81 km/h GALE 烈風
Cheung Chau 長洲 78 km/h GALE 烈風
Kai Tak 啟德 58 km/h STRONG 強風
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 72 km/h* GALE 烈風
Sai Kung 西貢 55 km/h STRONG 強風
Sha Tin 沙田 44 km/h STRONG 強風
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺 33 km/h Fresh 清勁
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 54 km/h STRONG 強風

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds: 7
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds: 3
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds: 0
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds: 0

錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數: 7
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數: 3
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數: 0

* Incomplete data 不完整數據

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
16072912 120N1274E 025
16072918 125N1272E 030
16073000 137N1270E 030
16073006 153N1264E 035
16073012 162N1247E 040
16073018 167N1239E 045
16073100 173N1232E 055
16073106 180N1222E 060
16073112 188N1212E 060
16073118 195N1201E 060
16080100 201N1189E 065
16080106 210N1176E 065
16080112 219N1162E 070
16080115 220N1158E 075
16080118 223N1149E 075
16080121 226N1141E 070
16080200 227N1136E 065
16080203 231N1130E 055
16080206 235N1124E 045
16080212 239N1110E 040
16080218 243N1096E 035
16080300 249N1081E 030

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據 (英文)

Station
Maximum Gust
Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction
Speed(km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Direction
Speed(km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Bluff Head (Stanley)
SW
83
2/8
05:46
SSW
43
2/8
08:00
Central Pier
WSW
96
2/8
05:30
W
51
2/8
03:00
Cheung Chau
WNW
104
2/8
03:01
SSW
68
2/8
06:00
Cheung Chau Beach
WNW
99
2/8
01:28
SW
59
2/8
06:00
Green Island
SSW
128
2/8
06:18
SSW
99
2/8
07:00
Hong Kong International Airport
SW
117
2/8
06:45
SW
72
2/8
07:00
Kai Tak
NW
96
2/8
00:29
WNW
47
2/8
01:00
King's Park 
WSW
92
2/8
05:52
WSW
36
2/8
06:00
Lau Fau Shan
S
108
2/8
07:09
WNW
63
2/8
03:00
Ngong Ping
SW
158
2/8
07:31
SSW
121
2/8
09:00
North Point
WSW
75
2/8
05:03
W
41
2/8
04:00
Peng Chau
WNW
99
2/8
01:57
WNW
59
2/8
02:00
Ping Chau
NNW
59
2/8
00:28
NW
20
2/8
01:00
Sai Kung 
NNW
87
1/8
23:06
S
49
2/8
07:00
Sha Chau
SSW
110
2/8
06:49
SSW
77
2/8
08:00
Sha Lo Wan
SSW
104
2/8
06:56
SSW
52
2/8
08:00
Sha Tin
SSW
87
2/8
05:52
SSW
36
2/8
07:00
Shek Kong
S
67
2/8
10:04
NW
25
2/8
01:00
S
25
2/8
08:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon)
WSW
112
2/8
05:18
W
47
2/8
04:00
Ta Kwu Ling 
SSE
63
2/8
10:31
SSE
27
2/8
10:00
SSE
27
2/8
11:00
Tai Mei Tuk
SW
104
2/8
06:04
WSW
58
2/8
07:00
Tai Mo Shan
SW
158
2/8
06:45
SSW
101
2/8
08:00
Tai Po Kau
S
70
2/8
06:09
WNW
34
2/8
01:00
Tap Mun
NW
81
2/8
01:22
WNW
41
2/8
03:00
Tate's Cairn 
NW
128
2/8
01:45
NNW
75
1/8
23:00
Tseung Kwan O
S
70
2/8
06:11
NNW
25
1/8
23:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot
SSE
79
2/8
06:27
S
47
2/8
07:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices
WNW
92
2/8
04:02
S
31
2/8
08:00
Waglan Island
SSW
121
2/8
05:23
SSW
94
2/8
06:00
Wetland Park
SW
68
2/8
07:05
NW
31
2/8
03:00
Wong Chuk Hang
WNW
75
2/8
00:01
WNW
30
2/8
01:00

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by NIDA from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (英文) (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station
31-Jul
1-Aug
2-Aug
Total Rainfall (mm)
Hong Kong Observatory
1.2
4.6
121.0
126.8
Hong Kong International Airport (HKA)
0.0
1.4
177.6
179.0
Cheung Chau (CCH)
0.0
0.5
100.5
101.0
H23 Aberdeen
0.0
1.5
87.0
88.5
N05 Fanling
0.0
1.0
134.5
135.5
N13 High Island
0.5
1.5
107.5
109.5
K04 Jordan Valley
0.0
4.5
102.5
107.0
N06 Kwai Chung
0.0
4.0
153.5
157.5
H12 Mid Levels
0.0
3.5
132.5
136.0
N09 Sha Tin
2.5
0.0
117.0
119.5
H19 Shau Kei Wan
0.0
1.0
126.0
127.0
SEK Shek Kong
0.0
0.5
144.5
145.0
K06 So Uk Estate
0.0
4.5
117.5
122.0
R31 Tai Mei Tuk
0.0
0.0
76.0
76.0
R21 Tap Shek Kok
15.5
0.0
138.5
154.0
N17 Tung Chung
0.0
0.5
298.5
299.0

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Fri Jun 21 2019 07:11:16 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Sun Oct 02 2016

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