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TC Watch / 熱帶氣旋 > Selected TC Review / 重要熱帶氣旋回顧 > 201715W (HATO 天鴿) [Refresh 更新]

201715W (HATO 天鴿) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on September 13, 2017; final version issued on October 25, 2017)
(初稿於 2017 年 9 月 13 日發出,最後版本於 2017 年 10 月 25 日上載)

Brief profile of HATO | 天鴿小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 15W
International number 國際編號 1713
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2017/08/20 08 HKT - 2017/08/24 20 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 4.50 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 100 knots 節 (Category 3 Typhoon 三級颱風)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 948 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
10 (Hurricane Signal 颶風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO
香港天文台所示之最接近距離
SSW 60 km (real-time warning 實時報告 and 及 TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO
香港天文台所示之最接近時間
2017/08/23 10 HKT (real-time warning and TC report 實時報告及熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓
986.3 hPa 百帕 (2017/08/23 09:39 HKT)

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動趨勢
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2017/08/22 (TUE) 08:40 HKT ESE 650 km WNW at 25 km/h 75 km/h (40 knots, TS)
2017/08/22 (TUE) 18:20 HKT ESE 410 km WNW at 25 km/h 120 km/h (65 knots, T)
2017/08/23 (WED) 05:20 HKT SE 180 km WNW at 25 km/h 140 km/h (75 knots, T)
2017/08/23 (WED) 08:10 HKT SSE 100 km WNW at 25 km/h 155 km/h (85 knots, ST)
2017/08/23 (WED) 09:10 HKT S 80 km WNW at 25 km/h 155 km/h (85 knots, ST)
2017/08/23 (WED) 14:10 HKT W 110 km WNW at 25 km/h 165 km/h (90 knots, ST)
2017/08/23 (WED) 17:10 HKT W 200 km WNW at 25 km/h 130 km/h (70 knots, T)
2017/08/23 (WED) 18:20 HKT W 240 km WNW at 25 km/h 120 km/h (65 knots, T)
2017/08/23 (WED) 20:40 HKT W 340 km WNW at 25 km/h 105 km/h (55 knots, STS)

Figure 圖:

(Track figure courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

Note: Since only three tropical cyclones necessitated the #10 Hurricane Signal since 1986, the following percentile ranks are obtained taking all tropical cyclones necessitating at least the #3 Strong Wind Signal into account.
注意:由於 1986 年起只有三個熱帶氣旋令天文台發出十號颶風信號,下列百分等級是對應期間所有令天文台發出三號或更高信號之熱帶氣旋帶來的風力。

Percentile rank among all storms necessitating at least the #3 Strong Wind Signal from 1986 to 2012 (at compilation of this review)*:
1986 至 2012 年令天文台發出三號或更高信號之風暴中的百分等級 (編寫此回顧之時)*:

*This measures the relative wind strength in Hong Kong caused by this storm compared with others. 指標顯示此風暴相對於其他氣旋為香港帶來之風力強度

For more information, please refer to Wind Speed Data for TCs that Have Affected Hong Kong. 更多資訊載於 影響香港氣旋之風速數據

  Overall:
總計:
97
  Strong
Component Ranks 分部等級
  Reference stations:
參考站:
98
  Strong
  Victoria Harbour:
維多利亞港:
94
  Strong
  Urban:
市區:
97
  Strong
  Offshore & high ground
離岸和高地:
96
  Strong

Cyclones that attained similar rating: VICENTE (2012), YORK (1999)
相近級別之熱帶氣旋:韋森特 (2012)、約克 (1999)

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC tracks from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins 本站發佈

Please click here for bulletins on this tropical cyclone. 請按這裡

Storm Development Overview 風暴發展概覽

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

HATO developed within the intertropical convergence zone in middle to late August. On August 19, the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert for the patch of active convections just east of the Luzon Strait. The low pressure system intensified into a tropical depression on August 20; the JTWC made the upgrade at 8 am and assigned to it the storm number 15W, while the HKO upgraded the system near noon that day. The JMA, meanwhile, upgraded 15W into a tropical storm at 2 pm and named it HATO.

At its formation, HATO was situated in warm seas but with moderate westerly vertical wind shear. As a result, HATO's convections were concentrated in its western semicircle and its low-level circulation centre was exposed. Numerical models and some official agencies predicted that HATO would initially move west or dip southward briefly as the storm organized itself. Later, as the subtropical ridge north of HATO assumed influence, the storm would then move west-northwest towards eastern Guangdong.

Over the next two days, HATO intensified slowly but steadily. It crossed the Luzon Strait on August 21 and entered the South China Sea early on August 22, still moving west. All official agencies adjusted their track forecast westward to depict a landfall just west of Hong Kong, on the other side of the Pearl River Estuary. The vertical wind shear in northeastern South China Sea eased on August 22 and HATO was able to accumulate convections near its centre. The HKO upgraded HATO into a severe tropical storm at noon, and the storm intensified into a 110-km/h system in the early afternoon. HATO further developed a banding eye shortly after and the HKO made another upgrade at 4 pm, declaring HATO a typhoon.

HATO started to move west-northwest in the night of August 22 and approached Dongsha near midnight August 23. The storm continued to strengthen in very warm seas and developed a small central dense overcast in the morning. The NMC of the CMA upgraded HATO into a severe typhoon at 7 am and the HKO followed suit an hour later. The storm was almost at its peak strength when it passed around 60 km south-southwest of the Hong Kong Observatory near 10 am*. HATO's northern eyewall and part of its eye battered Macau near noon and made landfall at Zhuhai just west of Macau at 1 pm, carrying winds of up to 175 km/h (HKO estimate**).

HATO continued to move west-northwest after landfall. It weakened into a typhoon at 4 pm and further into a severe tropical storm at 7 pm. The storm moved into Guangxi later that night and remained as a tropical storm throughout the morning of August 24. It finally weakened into an area of low pressure near midnight August 25 in southern Yunnan province.

*The HKO later revised HATO's maximum intensity to 185 km/h (super typhoon category) in its tropical cyclone report.

**Estimates from other agencies are: SMG 165 km/h, NMC 48 m/s (173 km/h) 2-min average, JMA 80 knots (148 km/h), CWB 40 m/s (144 km/h), JTWC 100 knots (185 km/h) 1-min average.

8 月中下旬,天鴿於熱帶輻合帶中發展。8 月 19 日,聯合颱風警報中心為於呂宋海峽以東的活躍對流發出熱帶氣旋形成警報。該低壓系統於 20 日增強為熱帶低氣壓,聯合颱風警報中心於當早 8 時升格,並給予風暴編號 15W。香港天文台於中午時份作出升格,而日本氣象廳更於下午 2 時將 15W 升格為熱帶風暴,並命名為天鴿。

天鴿形成時處於溫暖海域,但由於風暴受中等水平的偏西垂直風切變影響,天鴿的對流被切離至其西半圓,低層環流中心外露。數值模式及部分官方機構預測天鴿初時因風暴整合向西或西微南方向移動,並於稍後因受北面副熱帶高壓脊帶領而開始向西北偏西移動,趨向廣東東部。

天鴿於之後兩天緩慢但穩定地增強。它於 21 日橫過呂宋海峽,於翌日進入南海並繼續西移。由於西移趨勢持續,官方氣象機構均將其預測路徑西調,並預計天鴿會於香港以西近處、珠江口的對岸登陸。隨著南海東北部的垂直風切變水平於 22 日有所下降,天鴿的對流逐漸於中心周邊發展。香港天文台於中午將天鴿升格為強烈熱帶風暴,至下午初段風暴中心風力已增強至每小時 110 公里。過了不久,天鴿發展出一雲捲風眼,天文台再於下午 4 時將其升格為颱風。

22 日晚,天鴿開始向西北偏西移動,並於 23 日午夜左右靠近東沙島。由於海面非常溫暖,風暴繼續增強,並於早上發展出一細小中心密集雲區。中國中央氣象台於早上 7 時將天鴿升格為強颱風,天文台於一小時後跟隨。天鴿於上午 10 時左右以接近巔峰強度在天文台西南偏南約 60 公里處掠過*。中午時份,天鴿的北面眼牆及部分風眼橫掃澳門,風暴於下午 1 時左右在澳門以西的珠海登陸,當時中心最高持續風速估計達每小時 175 公里 (香港天文台強度資料**)。

天鴿登陸後繼續向西北偏西移動並分別於下午 4 及 7 時減弱為颱風及強烈熱帶風暴。它於晚間進入廣西,並於 24 日早上維持熱帶風暴強度。天鴿最終於 25 日近午夜在雲南南部減弱為低壓區。

*天文台於事後熱帶氣旋報告中將天鴿的最高強度修訂為超強颱風,風速為每小時 185 公里。

**其他氣象機構估計為:澳門地球物理暨氣象局 - 每小時 165 公里;中國中央氣象台 - 兩分鐘平均每秒 48 米 (每小時 173 公里);日本氣象廳 - 80 節 (每小時 148 公里);台灣中央氣象局 - 每秒 40 米 (每小時 144 公里);聯合颱風警報中心 - 一分鐘平均 100 節 (每小時 185 公里)。

Weather in Hong Kong During Approach 風暴影響時香港天氣狀況

Link to relevant HKO weather report bulletins: 22/8 23/8
香港天文台相關天氣報告連結22/8 23/8

HATO becomes the first tropical cyclone since Typhoon VICENTE in 2012 to necessitate the #10 Hurricane Signal in Hong Kong.

Even before HATO's formation, numerical models had been suggesting the formation of a tropical cyclone east of the Philippines with landfall in southern China. Under the influence of the subtropical ridge, it was mainly sunny on August 21 and 22. HATO entered the South China Sea in the morning of August 22; the #1 Standby Signal was issued at 8:40 am when HATO was around 650 km east-southeast of Hong Kong. As soon as the signal was issued, the HKO had already warned that HATO might pass within 100 km of the territory the next morning, and that the #3 Signal would be considered in the evening.

Due to HATO's subsidence, winds were light and it was very hot on August 22. Many places saw a surge in the air temperature to above 37 degrees in the afternoon; a maximum of 36.6 degrees was recorded at the Observatory at around 2 pm, breaking the previous record high of 36.3 degrees set in 2015. The temperature at Wetland Park even reached 39.0 degrees. Convective activities triggered by the extreme heat resulted in heavy showers across the territory near 4 pm, bringing down the temperature by more than 10 degrees at several locations.

The HKO issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 6:20 pm when HATO was around 410 km to the east-southeast, and mentioned that the #8 Signal would be considered near midnight unless HATO weakened or moved further away than forecast. Cargo handling services were suspended at around 7 pm. Locally, winds turned north but remained weak at nighttime. As a result, the HKO pushed back its timeframe for issuing a higher signal to the small hours of August 23, and later further to before 6 am. Also, as it was close to the date of the new moon and HATO was expected to approach during high tide, the HKO also warned the public about the possibility of serious flooding in low-lying areas due to the storm surge brought by HATO, and that the water level could be over 1 metre above normal.

HATO's circulation entered HKO's 256-km radar near midnight August 23, and it became apparent that HATO's eye was tightening over time. The HKO issued the Pre-No. 8 Special Announcement at 3:20 am and indicated that the #8 Signal would be issued by 5:30 am. Although HATO was only 220 km from Hong Kong at that time, winds were still quite light over the territory due to the sheltering effect of northerly winds, except at Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island where strong winds were being observed.

HATO's outer rainbands arrived at Hong Kong near 4 am and winds picked up at most offshore and highground locations at this time. At 5:20 am, the HKO issued the #8 Northeast Gale or Storm Signal. HATO was situated around 180 km southeast of Hong Kong and continued to approach the territory; chances of issuing higher signals could not be ruled out. Jetfoil services between Hong Kong and Macau were suspended, and so were most other land and sea transport services within the territory. Winds strengthened rapidly after daybreak, with storm force winds blowing at Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island by 7 am, and places such as Cheung Chau, Sai Kung, Sha Chau started to register gale force winds near 8 am.

As an inner rainband swept across Hong Kong in the morning, the HKO issued the Amber Rainstorm Warning at 8 am. 10 minutes later, the #9 Increasing Gale or Storm Signal was issued, together with an upgrade of HATO into a severe typhoon. HATO was only about 100 km from the Observatory and winds were still surging. By 9 am, hurricane force winds were recorded at Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island, while winds at Cheung Chau reached storm force and was close to the hurricane force threshold. The HKO issued the #10 Hurricane Signal at 9:10 am; in Hong Kong, the strongest winds were generally recorded between 9 am and noon, with hurricane force winds also observed at Cheung Chau and Ngong Ping, and storm force winds at Chek Lap Kok, Tai Mei Tuk, Peng Chau, Sha Chau, Stanley and Tap Mun. Gales were widespread in other places.

HATO was closest to Hong Kong at around 10 am. As HATO moved to the southwest, local wind direction gradually changed from northeast to southeast between 10 and 11 am. This coincided with the high tide that morning and resulted in exceptionally high water levels - the water level of 4.09 m above the Chart Datum recorded at 10:59 am at Tai Po Kau was the highest since Typhoon HOPE in 1979, and the level 3.57 m at about 10:29 am at Quarry Bay was the highest since Typhoon WANDA in 1962. As HATO moved to south of Macau and made landfall at Zhuhai, winds in Hong Kong weakened sharply near noon. The HKO replaced the #10 Signal by the #8 Southeast Gale or Storm Signal at 2:10 pm, after HATO had made landfall at Zhuhai and when HATO was about 110 km west of Hong Kong. By that time, gales were only confined to offshore and highground areas. Following the change in signal, the MTR service (previously restricted to underground sections) resumed gradually.

Winds eased further during the afternoon, prompting the HKO to issue the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 5:10 pm and later the #1 Standby Signal at 6:20 pm. The #1 Signal was eventually cancelled at 8:40 pm. As HATO's rainbands were concentrated in its southern side and convective activities were sparse after its passage, the weather improved quickly and there were sunny periods the day after.

The most serious damage in Hong Kong during HATO's passage is related to the surging water level. An underground car park in Heng Fa Chuen was submerged in water as series of waves beat the barrier; low-lying areas such as Tai O and Lei Yue Mun were hit hard, while the cycling lanes surrounding the Shing Mun River in Shatin briefly turned underwater. Glass panels mounted on various building were broken; the windows of several lower-floor units of a residential building in Hung Hom were broken by an outdoor working platform that was blown loose and was allowed to swing freely. According to the government's report, more than 120 people were injured during HATO's approach and sought medical assistance in the emergency units of public hospitals. More than 480 flights were cancelled and there were about 700 reports of fallen trees.

On the other hand, Macau hoisted the first #10 Hurricane Signal since Typhoon YORK in 1999. Macau suffered much more serious damage as it was exposed to HATO's even stronger winds within its inner eyewall, with 1-minute sustained winds in excess of 160 km/h recorded at the Amizade Bridge. Low-lying areas in Macau's western side such as St. Lawrence's Parish were inundated and many underground car parks were submerged. The storm resulted in 10 deaths in Macau and much of the city was incapacitated by the disruption of power and water supply. The SMG was criticised for failing to provide adequate warning of the impending danger and the relatively late issuance of tropical cyclone warning signals. Its director, Mr. Fong Soi Kun, resigned on August 24 due to personal reasons.

天鴿是自 2012 年颱風韋森特以來首個令香港天文台發出十號颶風信號的熱帶氣旋。

部分數值模式早於天鴿形成前預計有一熱帶氣旋將於菲律賓以東發展,及後登陸華南沿岸。受副熱帶高壓脊影響,本港 8 月 21 及 22 日大致天晴。天鴿於 22 日早上進入南海,天文台於上午 8 時 40 分發出一號戒備信號,當時天鴿處於香港東南偏東約 650 公里。早於一號信號發出時,天文台已經提醒市民天鴿有可能於翌日早上於香港 100 公里範圍內掠過,並將於傍晚考慮改發三號信號。

受天鴿相關下沉氣流影響,22 日風勢微弱,天氣酷熱。下午多區錄得超過 37 度高溫;天文台於下午 2 時左右錄得 36.6 度,打破於 2015 年創下的 36.3 度高溫紀錄,而濕地公園更錄得 39.0 度。極端酷熱天氣觸發對流活動,本港多處約下午 4 時下大驟雨,部分地方氣溫大跌 10 度以上。

隨著天鴿到達香港東南偏東約 410 公里,天文台於下午 6 時 20 分改發三號強風信號,並指出除非天鴿減弱或採取較預測遠離香港的路徑,否則將於午夜前後考慮改發八號信號。三號信號發出後不久,貨櫃交收服務隨即於下午 7 時左右暫停。當晚本港轉吹偏北風,但風勢仍然微弱,天文台遂將改發信號時間推遲至 23 日凌晨,其後更改為上午 6 時前。與此同時,由於正值新月時份,加上預料天鴿會於漲潮時來襲,天文台亦提醒低窪地方或因天鴿的風暴潮而出現嚴重水浸,水位或高於正常 1 米以上。

天鴿的環流於 23 日午夜時份進入天文台 256 公里雷達範圍,從雷達可清楚見到天鴿的風眼逐漸變得更為緊密。天文台於上午 3 時 20 分發出預警八號熱帶氣旋警告信號之特別報告,表示將最遲於上午 5 時 30 分改發八號信號。雖然天鴿只於香港 220 公里外,但由於北風受地形屏蔽較為顯著,因此本港風勢仍然較弱,只有大老山及橫瀾島吹強風。

天鴿的外圍雨帶於上午 4 時左右到達香港,大多數離岸及高地站點風勢增強。天文台於上午 5 時 20 分發出八號東北烈風或暴風信號,當時天鴿位於香港東南約 180 公里,並繼續靠近,天文台表示改發更高信號的可能性不能排除。來往港澳的水翼船服務及香港絕大多數海陸交通陸續暫停。日出後,風勢開始急速增強,至上午 7 時大老山及橫瀾島已吹暴風,而長洲、西貢及沙洲等地於上午 8 時左右開始吹烈風。

天鴿內部的一條雨帶於早上掃過本港,天文台於上午 8 時發出黃色暴雨警告信號。10 分鐘後,天文台發出九號烈風或暴風風力增強信號,並將天鴿升格為強颱風,天鴿當時距離天文台約 100 公里,風勢正拾級而上。至上午 9 時,大老山及橫瀾島吹颶風,而長洲風力接近暴風上限。天文台於上午 9 時 10 分改發十號颶風信號;本港風勢於上午 9 時至正午最為強勁,長洲及昂坪均錄得颶風,暴風影響地區包括赤鱲角、大美督、坪洲、沙洲、赤柱及塔門,而烈風則影響本港廣泛地區。

天鴿於上午 10 時左右最接近香港。隨著天鴿移至本港西南方,風向於上午 10 至 11 時由東北轉為東南。風暴最接近時適逢大潮,多區水位大幅上漲:大埔滘於上午 10 時 59 分錄得水位達海圖基準面以上 4.09 米,是自颱風荷貝於 1979 年來襲時的最高水位,而鰂魚涌於上午約 10 時 29 分錄得的 3.57 米水位更是自 1962 年颱風溫黛襲港以來的最高。隨著天鴿於澳門以南掠過並登陸珠海,香港風勢於正午過後明顯減弱。天文台於下午 2 時 10 分改發八號東南烈風或暴風信號,當時風暴已經登陸,並集結於香港以西約 110 公里,本港只餘下離岸及高地吹烈風。隨著十號信號取消,先前只維持地底部分行車的港鐵逐步回復正常服務。

本港風勢於下午逐漸減弱,天文台分別於下午 5 時 10 分及 6 時 20 分改發三號強風及一號戒備信號,而一號信號亦於下午 8 時 40 分取消。由於天鴿的雨帶集中於其南面,且風暴掠過後對流活動較為稀疏,因此天氣迅速轉好,翌日部分時間更有陽光。

香港方面,天鴿最具破壞力的是其風暴潮所引致的水位上漲。杏花一地底停車場因海浪高於岸邊高度而遭淹沒,而低窪地區如大澳及鯉魚門災情嚴重,沙田城門河旁邊的單車徑亦曾被水覆蓋。多區建築物有玻璃窗爆裂,而紅磡一幢住宅大廈有低層單位窗戶遭戶外隨風搖擺的吊船 (工作台) 撞破。根據政府報告,風暴襲港期間超過 120 人受傷並前往公共醫院的急症室診治。當天超過 480 班航班取消,而政府共接獲約 700 宗塌樹報告。

另一邊廂,澳門亦懸掛自 1999 年颱風約克以來的首個十號風球。當地遭受天鴿內眼壁更為猛烈的狂風吹襲,友誼大橋曾錄得一分鐘平均超過每小時 160 公里的風速,當地受災更為嚴重。澳門西面低窪地區如下環區出現嚴重水浸,很多地下停車場亦不能倖免。風暴於澳門導致 10 人死亡,多區停水停電致城市運作大受影響。澳門地球物理暨氣象局於天鴿一役被指未有適時警告市民危機來臨,且熱帶氣旋警告信號發出時間較遲,令市民未及防範,該局局長馮瑞權於 8 月 24 日因私人理由辭職。

Image Gallery 圖片庫

Figure 1 - The predictions of the numerical forecast model GFS on August 15. A close approach had been in the forecast long before HATO formed.
圖 1 - 數值預報模式 GFS 於 8 月 15 日之預測,可見天鴿形成前已有熱帶氣旋靠近香港附近的預報

Figure 2 - Satellite image of HATO at its formation on August 20
圖 2 - 天鴿於 8 月 20 日初形成時之衛星雲圖

Figure 3 - HKO's track prediction on August 20 (left) and August 22 (right)
圖 3 - 香港天文台於 8 月 20 (左) 及 22 日 (右) 之預測路徑圖


Figure 4 - Forecast tracks from various official agencies on August 20 (top) and August 22 (bottom)
圖 4 - 各官方氣象台於 8 月 20 (上) 及 22 日 (下) 之預測路徑圖

Figure 5 - Numerical model track forecasts on August 20 (Source: typhoon2000.ph)
圖 5 - 8 月 20 日之數值模式預測路徑 (來源:typhoon2000.ph)

Figure 6 - Steering flow chart on August 22
圖 6 - 8 月 22 日之駛流場圖

Figure 7 - Screenshot from weather-forecast.com on August 22. Based on the GFS model, hurricane force winds of up to 140 km/h during the morning of August 23 were in the forecast.
圖 7 - 8 月 22 日網站 weather-forecast.com 之截圖。GFS 模式預測香港於 23 日早上將吹高達每小時 140 公里的颶風。

Figure 8 - Maximum air temperatures recorded over Hong Kong on August 22
圖 8 - 8 月 22 日香港各區最高氣溫

Figure 9 - Sea temperature anomaly on August 21. The exceptionally warm seas east of Hong Kong were thought to contribute to HATO's rapid intensification prior to landfall.
圖 9 - 8 月 21 日海水溫度距平圖。香港以東海溫明顯偏高,相信是天鴿登陸前快速增強的其中一個原因。

Figure 10 - Satellite image of HATO passing south of Hong Kong which depicts a clear eye around tight convections
圖 10 - 天鴿於香港以南掠過時之衛星雲圖,可見風眼清晰,周圍對流緊密

Figure 11 - Maximum gusts over Hong Kong between 10:50 and 11:00 am August 23. The threshold for hurricane force winds is 118 km/h.
圖 11 - 8 月 23 日上午 10 時 50 分至 11 時本港各區最高陣風風速。颶風風力下限為每小時 118 公里。

Figure 12 - Mean sea level pressure distribution in southern China at 11 am August 23
圖 12 - 8 月 23 日上午 11 時之華南平均海平面氣壓分布

Figure 13 - Estimated wind field at 11 am August 23. Hurricane force winds were affecting southwestern Hong Kong.
圖 13 - 8 月 23 日上午 11 時的估算風場圖,顯示香港西南部正受颶風吹襲

Figure 14 - HKO's track and wind radii estimates at 11 am August 23. The estimated hurricane force wind radius was 45 nautical miles (83 km).
圖 14 - 香港天文台於 8 月 23 日上午 11 時之路徑及估計風圈圖,當時評估天鴿颶風圈半徑為 45 海里 (83 公里)


Figure 15 - Radar images at 3-hour intervals from 2 am to 5 pm August 23
圖 15 - 8 月 23 日上午 2 時至下午 5 時每三小時之雷達圖

Figure 16 - Radar image showing HATO moving south-southwest of Hong Kong, with its inner eyewall touching Macau
圖 16 - 雷達圖顯示天鴿於香港西南偏南方掠過,其內眼壁觸及澳門


Figure 17 - Local wind disitribution maps at 3-hour intervals from 2 am to 5 pm August 23
圖 17 - 8 月 23 日上午 2 時至下午 5 時每三小時之本港風勢分布圖


Figure 18 - Time series chart of the tidal height at Quarry Bay (top) and Tai Po Kau (bottom)
圖 18 - 鰂魚涌 (上) 及大埔滘 (下) 之潮水高度時間序列圖

Figure 19 - Screenshot of the SMG showing hurricane force winds in Macau at 12:15 pm August 23
圖 19 - 8 月 23 日下午 12 時 15 分澳門地球物理暨氣象局之截圖,顯示澳門當時正吹颶風

Figure 20 - HATO's track near Hong Kong as reported in HKO's hourly tropical cyclone bulletins
圖 20 - 天鴿於香港附近時之路徑,資料來自天文台的每小時熱帶氣旋警報







Figure 21 - Wind speed time series at Cheung Chau, Ngong Ping, Peng Chau, Chek Lap Kok, Kai Tak, Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island (top to bottom) on August 23
圖 21 - 長洲、昂坪、坪洲、赤鱲角、啟德、大老山及橫瀾島 (上至下) 於 8 月 23 日的風速時間序列圖



Figure 22 - Sea level pressure time series at Cheung Chau, the Hong Kong Observatory and Waglan Island (top to bottom) on August 23
圖 22 - 長洲、香港天文台及橫瀾島 (上至下) 於 8 月 23 日的海平面氣壓時間序列圖

Figure 23 - Wind field analysis at around 10:30 am August 23 showing that HATO's centre was very close to Hong Kong
圖 23 - 8 月 23 日約上午 10 時 30 分的風場掃描圖顯示天鴿的中心非常接近香港

Figure 24 - Exceptionally high waves hitting a building in Heng Fa Chuen (Image from the Internet)
圖 24 - 海浪拍打杏花邨一幢樓宇 (網上圖片)

Figure 25 - Severe flooding in the low-lying areas in Macau. As can be seen in this photo, the water level was higher than the height of an adult (Source: All About Macau Media)
圖 25 - 澳門低窪地區嚴重水浸。由此相片可見當時水位超過一般成年人的身高 (來源:論盡媒體)

Figure 26 - Local total rainfall distribution map for August 23
圖 26 - 8 月 23 日本港總雨量分布圖

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

Station
風速站
Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
最高十分鐘平均風速
Beaufort classification
蒲福氏風級分類
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角 102 km/h STORM 暴風
Cheung Chau 長洲 132 km/h HURRICANE 颶風
Kai Tak 啟德 81 km/h GALE 烈風
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 78 km/h GALE 烈風
Sai Kung 西貢 80 km/h GALE 烈風
Sha Tin 沙田 45 km/h STRONG 強風
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺 49 km/h STRONG 強風
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 55 km/h STRONG 強風

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds: 8
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds: 5
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds: 2
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds: 1

錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數: 8
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數: 5
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數: 2
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數: 1

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
17082000 201N1291E 025
17082006 204N1277E 030
17082012 204N1263E 035
17082018 202N1255E 035
17082100 200N1248E 040
17082106 203N1243E 040
17082112 204N1231E 045
17082118 202N1215E 045
17082200 200N1201E 050
17082206 205N1187E 060
17082212 206N1173E 070
17082215 207N1167E 070
17082218 210N1160E 080
17082221 213N1153E 085
17082300 215N1145E 090
17082301 216N1143E 095
17082302 218N1140E 105
17082303 219N1138E 105
17082304 220N1136E 110
17082305 221N1134E 110
17082306 222N1130E 100
17082309 225N1121E 085
17082312 227N1110E 060
17082318 230N1092E 045
17082400 232N1076E 040
17082406 235N1063E 035
17082412 237N1048E 030

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據 (英文)

Station
Maximum Gust
Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction
Speed
(km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Direction
Speed
(km/h)
Date/Month
Time
Bluff Head (Stanley)
NE
139
23/8
09:06
SE
87
23/8
11:00
Central Pier
E
137
23/8
09:55
E
70
23/8
10:00
Cheung Chau
SE
171
23/8
11:01
SE
124
23/8
12:00
Cheung Chau Beach
ENE
193
23/8
10:15
NE
121
23/8
10:00
Hong Kong International Airport
ESE
144
23/8
11:55
E
90
23/8
11:00
Kai Tak
NE
130
23/8
08:54
ESE
67
23/8
12:00
King's Park 
ESE
113
23/8
10:49
ESE
52
23/8
11:00
Lau Fau Shan
NNE
112
23/8
08:55
N
65
23/8
09:00
Ngong Ping
E
224
23/8
11:07
ENE
131
23/8
11:00
North Point
ENE
137
23/8
09:49
ENE
85
23/8
10:00
Peng Chau
E
151
23/8
10:53
E
96
23/8
11:00
Ping Chau
ENE
77
23/8
08:57
ENE
25
23/8
09:00
Sai Kung 
E
112
23/8
10:00
NE
70
23/8
10:00
Sha Chau
SSE
137
23/8
12:21
ESE
88
23/8
12:00
Sha Tin
NNE
104
23/8
09:27
SE
38
23/8
13:00
Shek Kong
NE
106
23/8
09:52
E
45
23/8
12:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon)
E
112
23/8
09:54
E
59
23/8
11:00
Ta Kwu Ling 
NNE
99
23/8
09:42
NNE
41
23/8
10:00
Tai Mei Tuk
ENE
140
23/8
10:20
ENE
94
23/8
10:00
E
94
23/8
11:00
Tai Mo Shan
ESE
196
23/8
11:22
SE
90
23/8
13:00
Tai Po Kau
ESE
113
23/8
11:38
E
68
23/8
11:00
Tap Mun*
ENE
122
23/8
09:22
ENE
94
23/8
10:00
ENE
122
23/8
09:29
 
 
 
 
Tate's Cairn 
NE
187
23/8
08:37
ENE
118
23/8
09:00
Tseung Kwan O
ESE
96
23/8
11:04
NNE
36
23/8
09:00
ESE
36
23/8
12:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot
ESE
106
23/8
10:40
ESE
43
23/8
12:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices
SE
112
23/8
11:52
SE
43
23/8
13:00
Waglan Island
E
193
23/8
09:10
NE
130
23/8
09:00
Wetland Park
NE
76
23/8
09:57
ENE
38
23/8
11:00
Wong Chuk Hang
E
117
23/8
10:00
E
43
23/8
11:00

*The old wind station on the rooftop of Tap Mun Police Post is replaced by the new Tap Mun station on July 6, 2017.
*新塔門測風站在 2017 年 7 月 6 日取代在塔門警崗屋頂的舊測風站。

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by HATO from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (英文) (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station 22 Aug 23 Aug 24 Aug
Total Rainfall (mm)
Hong Kong Observatory (HKO)
2.0
67.1
Trace
69.1
Hong Kong International Airport
(HKA)
20.4

58.7

2.4
81.5
Cheung Chau (CCH)
1.5
32.0
0.0
33.5
H23 Aberdeen
1.5
51.5
0.0
53.0
N05 Fanling
3.0
49.0
1.0
53.0
N13 High Island
17.5
46.0
0.0
63.5
K04 Jordan Valley
2.0
66.5
0.0
68.5
N06 Kwai Chung
0.5
82.0
0.0
82.5
H12 Mid Levels
3.0
71.0
0.0
74.0
N09 Sha Tin
0.5
88.5
3.5
92.5
H19 Shau Kei Wan
8.5
62.5
0.0
71.0
SEK Shek Kong
1.0
96.0
0.0
97.0
K06 So Uk Estate
3.5
89.0
0.0
92.5
R31 Tai Mei Tuk
2.5
66.0
[2.5]
[71.0]
R21 Tap Shek Kok
19.0
82.5
[3.0]
[104.5]
TMR Tuen Mun Reservoir
4.6
73.2
0.0
77.8
N17 Tung Chung
29.5
56.5
0.0
86.0

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Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Wed Oct 25 2017

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