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201718W (MAWAR 瑪娃) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on October 1, 2017; final version issued on December 18, 2017)
(初稿於 2017 年 10 月 1 日發出,最後版本於 2017 年 12 月 18 日上載)

Brief profile of MAWAR | 瑪娃小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 18W
International number 國際編號 1716
Period of existence 生存時期 (JTWC) 2017/09/01 02 HKT - 2017/09/04 02 HKT
Lifetime 壽命 (JTWC) 3.00 days 日
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速 45 knots 節 (Tropical Storm 熱帶風暴)
Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 993 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO
香港天文台發出最高熱帶氣旋警告信號
3 (Strong Wind Signal 強風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO
香港天文台所示之最接近距離
NNE 110 km (real-time warning 實時報告) / 120 km (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO
香港天文台所示之最接近時間
2017/09/04 09 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告) / 08 HKT (TC report 熱帶氣旋報告)
Lowest pressure recorded at HKO
香港天文台錄得的最低氣壓
1002.8 hPa 百帕 (2017/09/02 15:21 HKT)

TC signals for Hong Kong & Track 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告和路徑圖:

Table 表:

Signal
信號
Date and time
日期和時間
Distance from HK
與香港的距離
Predicted movement
預測移動趨勢
Max. 10-min winds
中心最高十分鐘平均風速
2017/09/02 (SAT) 02:20 HKT ESE 420 km NW/NNW Slowly 75 km/h (40 knots, TS)
2017/09/03 (SUN) 22:40 HKT ENE 200 km NW/WNW at 12 km/h 85 km/h (45 knots, TS)
2017/09/04 (MON) 10:20 HKT NNE 120 km WNW at 12 km/h 55 km/h (30 knots, TD)
2017/09/04 (MON) 14:10 HKT NNW 180 km* WNW at 12 km/h* 40 km/h (20 knots, LPA)

* Location information from "Tropical Cyclone Past Positions and Intensities" page; predicted movement from TC bulletin at 1 pm September 4.
* 位置資料由 "熱帶氣旋過去位置和強度" 頁擷取,而預測移動趨勢由 9 月 4 日下午 1 時之熱帶氣旋警報擷取。

Figure 圖:

(Track figure courtesy of Lorenzo. Data from HKO. 鳴謝 Lorenzo 提供路徑圖,資料取自天文台)

TC Track

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

Percentile rank among storms with #3 Signal (at compilation of this review)*:
發出三號信號之風暴中的百分等級 (編寫此回顧之時)*:

*This measures the relative wind strength in Hong Kong caused by this storm compared with others that share the same signal. 指標顯示此風暴相對於其他發出同樣信號的風暴為香港帶來之風力強度

For more information, please refer to Wind Speed Data for TCs that Have Affected Hong Kong. 更多資訊載於 影響香港氣旋之風速數據

  Overall:
總計:
11
  Weak
Component Ranks 分部等級
  Reference stations:
參考站:
15
  Weak
  Victoria Harbour:
維多利亞港:
11
  Weak
  Urban:
市區:
3
  Weak
  Offshore & high ground
離岸和高地:
16
  Weak

Cyclones that attained similar rating (with signal #3): TALIM (2012), NALGAE (2011), NANGKA (2009), DAN (1999), PENNY (1998)
相近級別之熱帶氣旋 (三號信號):泰利 (2012)、尼格 (2011)、浪卡 (2009)、丹尼 (1999)、彭妮 (1998)

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC tracks from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC Track

Past HKWW Bulletins 本站發佈

Please click here for bulletins on this tropical cyclone. 請按這裡

Storm Development Overview 風暴發展概覽

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間 (協調世界時加 8 小時)

A patch of convections formed in the seas east of the Philippines in late August. The JMA issued a gale warning on this system on August 28 but cancelled it a day later as the formative system failed to gain strength. The low pressure area then made its way into the South China Sea and gathered strength just off the northwestern coast of the Philippines on August 31, prompting the JTWC to issue a tropical cyclone formation alert that morning. The system strengthened further during the day and the HKO upgraded it into a tropical depression at 4 pm. A similar upgrade was made by the JTWC at 2 am September 1, with the assignment of the storm number 18W. At the same time, the JMA upgraded it into a tropical storm and named it MAWAR.

At the time of MAWAR's formation, the subtropical ridge was dominant in southeast Asia; alongside the Pacific ridge east of the storm, there was also ridge influence in southern China and Indochina. Situated in this pressure col, MAWAR moved slowly and erratically on August 31. Nevertheless, this configuration was expected to be temporary and the storm was forecast to move north-northwest when the eastern ridge assumed dominance.

MAWAR's speed increased on September 1 and the HKO upgraded the system into a tropical storm at 10 pm that day. MAWAR gradually intensified during the night but the storm remained asymmetric as it suffered from strong southwesterly vertical wind shear. The low-level circulation centre was partially exposed at times. The storm moved westward briefly, before turning north-northwest on September 2 with a reduction in speed. The HKO upgraded MAWAR into a severe tropical storm at 1 pm September 2.

MAWAR accelerated and moved northwest on September 3, but the storm showed signs of weakening prior to landfall. The HKO downgraded MAWAR into a tropical storm at 6 pm while the NMC did so at 8 pm. The storm made landfall near Shanwei between 9 and 10 pm and turned west-northwest as the subtropical ridge strengthened again in southern China. It weakened into a tropical depression in the morning of September 4 and further into an area of low pressure northeast of Guangzhou in the afternoon.

8 月底,一團對流於菲律賓以東海域形成。日本氣象廳於 8 月 28 日為該系統發出烈風警報,但由於系統並未增強,該警報於一日後取消。此低壓區隨後進入南海,於 31 日在菲律賓西北岸對開發展,聯合颱風警報中心當天早上對其發出熱帶氣旋形成警報。該系統於日間進一步增強,香港天文台於下午 4 時將其升格為熱帶低氣壓。聯合颱風警報中心於 9 月 1 日上午 2 時作出升格,並給予風暴編號 18W;與此同時,日本氣象廳將其升格為熱帶風暴,並命名為瑪娃。

瑪娃形成初時,副熱帶高壓脊盤據東南亞;除風暴以東的太平洋有一脊場外,華南及中南半島均被副高覆蓋。8 月 31 日,瑪娃於此鞍場中緩慢地作不規則移動。但當時預測此情況將不會持久,風暴將隨東面脊場成為主導而向西北偏北移動。

瑪娃於 9 月 1 日開始加速,天文台於下午 10 時將其升格為熱帶風暴。瑪娃於晚間逐漸增強,但由於該區西南垂直風切變處於較高水平,風暴型態並不對稱,低層環流中心有時部分外露。風暴短暫向偏西移動,隨後於 2 日轉西北偏北方向,速度減慢。天文台於 2 日下午 1 時將瑪娃升格為強烈熱帶風暴。

瑪娃於 3 日加速向西北移,但風暴登陸前出現減弱跡象,香港天文台及中國中央氣象台分別於當日下午 6 時及 8 時將風暴降格為熱帶風暴。瑪娃於下午 9 至 10 時於汕尾一帶登陸.並因應副高於華南再度伸展而開始向西北偏西移動。風暴於 4 日早上減弱為熱帶低氣壓,下午於廣州東北面的地方減弱為低壓區。

Weather in Hong Kong During Approach 風暴影響時香港天氣狀況

Link to relevant HKO weather report bulletins: 2/9 3/9 4/9
香港天文台相關天氣報告連結2/9 3/9 4/9

In Hong Kong, there were sunny periods and occasional heavy showers on August 31 and September 1. It was very hot on September 1 with temperatures generally surpassing 33 degrees over the territory. As MAWAR started edging closer towards the Guangdong coast, the HKO issued the #1 Standby Signal at 2:20 am September 2, when the storm was 420 km east-southeast of Hong Kong. Convective activities became more frequent during the day, but winds remained rather light during September 2 and early September 3.

Since MAWAR was to make landfall east of Hong Kong, winds backed from the north to the west on September 3. A rainband approached the territory near 5 pm that day and the first sight of an increase in wind speed was noted in offshore areas and on high ground. The HKO mentioned the possibility of higher signals in its 5 pm bulletin and eventually issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 10:40 pm. At that time, MAWAR was situated around 200 km east-northeast of Hong Kong and had just made landfall. However, as MAWAR was expected to take a more westerly trajectory, it would continue to approach Hong Kong and winds could strengthen overnight.

Although MAWAR gradually degenerated on land, its convections were concentrated in the southwestern periphery and there was persistent precipitation in Hong Kong early on September 4. Winds turned southwesterly in the small hours and strengthened further, generally peaking in the early morning. Strong force winds were observed at Chek Lap Kok, Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan, Sha Chau, Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island (with occasional gales). Both rain and wind diminished later in the morning as MAWAR's convections dissipated further. The #3 Strong Wind Signal was replaced by the #1 Standby Signal at 10:20 am. It is interesting to note that the HKO downgraded MAWAR into an area of low pressure in its tropical cyclone bulletin at 1:45 pm, before eventually cancelling the tropical cyclone signal at 2:10 pm. Winds in Hong Kong generally returned to normal level during the afternoon.

An active southerly airstream brought some showers to Hong Kong in the rest of September 4 and on September 5, and the weather improved on September 6.

香港方面,8 月 31 及 9 月 1 日部分時間有陽光,間中有大驟雨。9 月 1 日香港天氣酷熱,多區錄得氣溫逾 33 度。隨著瑪娃開始靠近廣東沿岸,天文台於 2 日上午 2 時 20 分發出一號戒備信號,風暴當時位於香港東南偏東約 420 公里。當日日間對流活動變得頻繁,但 2 日及 3 日早段風勢仍然較弱。

由於瑪娃將於香港以東登陸,本港風向於 3 日由偏北逆轉至偏西。一道雨帶於當日下午 5 時左右靠近本港,離岸及高地風勢開始增強。天文台於其下午 5 時之熱帶氣旋警報中提及或會改發較高信號,結果於下午 10 時 40 分發出三號強風信號。信號發出時,瑪娃剛登陸並位於香港東北偏東約 200 公里處。但是,由於預料瑪娃將採取較為偏西的路徑,風暴仍會進一步靠近本港,凌晨風勢或會增強。

雖然瑪娃於陸上逐漸解體,但其對流集中在西南面,香港於 4 日早段有持續降雨。本港風向於凌晨漸轉西南,風勢於早上初段最大,赤鱲角、長洲、流浮山、沙洲、大老山及橫瀾島吹強風,其中橫瀾島間中吹烈風。隨著瑪娃的對流進一步消散,本港雨勢及風勢於早上較後時間減弱。天文台於上午 10 時 20 分改發一號戒備信號,取代三號強風信號。較為有趣的是天文台於下午 1 時 45 分的熱帶氣旋警報中將瑪娃降格為低壓區,但延至下午 2 時 10 分才取消一號戒備信號。香港各區風勢普遍於下午回復正常水平。

受一道活躍偏南氣流影響,本港於 4 日餘下時間及 5 日繼續有驟雨,天色於 6 日轉為明朗。

Image Gallery 圖片庫

Figure 1 - Satellite image of MAWAR at formation
圖 1 - 瑪娃形成時之衛星雲圖

Figure 2 - Map of 500-hPa geopotential height at 8 am August 31
圖 2 - 8 月 31 日上午 8 時之 500 百帕位勢高度圖

Figure 3 - Initial forecast track issued by the HKO
圖 3 - 香港天文台的初始路徑預測圖

Figure 4 - The ECMWF predicted a landfall very close to Hong Kong in its August 30 model run, before MAWAR's formation. Image from Tropical Tidbits.
圖 4 - 瑪娃形成前,歐洲中期天氣預報中心於其 8 月 30 日之模式運算中預計風暴會於香港附近登陸。圖片來源:Tropical Tidbits

Figure 5 - Forecast tracks from various official agencies on September 1
圖 5 - 9 月 1 日各官方氣象機構之路徑預測

Figure 6 - Vertical wind shear distribution map at 8 am September 2
圖 6 - 9 月 2 日上午 8 時之垂直風切變分布圖

Figure 7 - Wind field analysis at 9:42 pm September 2
圖 7 - 9 月 2 日下午 9 時 42 分之風場掃描圖

Figure 8 - Satellite image of MAWAR at peak intensity
圖 8 - 瑪娃於巔峰強度時之衛星雲圖

Figure 9 - Radar image at 2 pm September 3 (left) and 8 am September 4 (right)
圖 9 - 9 月 3 日下午 2 時 (左) 及 4 日上午 8 時 (右) 之雷達圖

Figure 10 - MAWAR's track and its estimated wind radius at 8 am September 4
圖 10 - 瑪娃之路徑及 9 月 4 日上午 8 時之估計風圈大小

Figure 11 - Visible imagery of MAWAR at 8 am September 4
圖 11 - 9 月 4 日上午 8 時瑪娃之可見光衛星雲圖

Figure 12 - Local wind disitribution map at 8 am September 4
圖 12 - 9 月 4 日上午 8 時之本港風勢分布圖

Figure 13 - Wind speed time series at Lau Fau Shan, Chek Lap Kok and Waglan Island (top to bottom) on September 4
圖 13 - 流浮山、赤鱲角及橫瀾島 (上至下) 於 9 月 4 日的風速時間序列圖

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

Station
風速站
Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
最高十分鐘平均風速
Beaufort classification
蒲福氏風級分類
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角 49 km/h STRONG 強風
Cheung Chau 長洲 50 km/h STRONG 強風
Kai Tak 啟德 33 km/h Fresh 清勁
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 50 km/h STRONG 強風
Sai Kung 西貢 20 km/h Moderate 和緩
Sha Tin 沙田 30 km/h Moderate 和緩
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺 18 km/h Moderate 和緩
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 23 km/h Moderate 和緩

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds: 3
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds: 0
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds: 0
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds: 0

錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數: 3
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數: 0
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數: 0

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
17083100 188N1189E 025
17083106 185N1192E 030
17083112 188N1192E 030
17083118 192N1189E 030
17090100 196N1188E 035
17090106 203N1186E 035
17090112 208N1184E 035
17090118 209N1177E 040
17090200 211N1173E 045
17090206 214N1173E 050
17090212 215N1173E 050
17090218 217N1170E 050
17090300 219N1168E 050
17090306 223N1164E 050
17090312 226N1161E 045
17090318 229N1155E 040
17090400 232N1146E 035
17090406 237N1140E 025
17090412 241N1136E 020

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據 (英文)

Station Maximum Gust Maximum Hourly Mean Wind
Direction Speed
(km/h)
Date/Month Time Direction Speed
(km/h)
Date/Month Time
Bluff Head (Stanley) W 51 4/9 01:37 WSW 25 4/9 02:00
Central Pier WSW 58 4/9 09:43 W 22 3/9 15:00
Cheung Chau SSW 65 4/9 02:42 S 45 4/9 03:00
Cheung Chau Beach SW 59 4/9 05:22 SW 38 4/9 08:00
Hong Kong International Airport SW 63 4/9 06:50 SW 45 4/9 08:00
Kai Tak SW 59 4/9 08:06 SW 25 4/9 10:00
King's Park WSW 43 4/9 08:57 W 16 4/9 08:00
Lau Fau Shan SSW 75 4/9 07:14 SSW 40 4/9 08:00
North Point WSW 54 4/9 11:38 W 31 4/9 12:00
Peng Chau NE 63 3/9 18:12 SW 25 4/9 07:00
SW 25 4/9 08:00
Ping Chau W 43 4/9 00:25 W 22 4/9 01:00
Sai Kung SW 43 4/9 11:22 WSW 16 4/9 12:00
Sha Chau SSW 67 4/9 05:39 SSW 47 4/9 06:00
Sha Lo Wan SSW 67 4/9 10:55 SW 31 4/9 07:00
Sha Tin SW 49 4/9 08:14 SW 23 4/9 09:00
Shek Kong SW 31 4/9 13:06 WSW 12 4/9 12:00
Star Ferry (Kowloon) WSW 70 4/9 07:48 W 31 4/9 08:00
Ta Kwu Ling SW 36 4/9 11:29 SSW 13 4/9 11:00
Tai Mei Tuk W 51 4/9 13:22 W 31 3/9 23:00
Tai Mo Shan SW 81 4/9 06:13 SW 59 4/9 12:00
SW 81 4/9 11:35
Tai Po Kau WNW 47 4/9 09:38 NW 16 3/9 23:00
Tap Mun* SSW 51 4/9 07:51 SSW 25 4/9 06:00
SSW 25 4/9 09:00
SW 25 4/9 10:00
Tate's Cairn SSW 81 4/9 07:57 SSW 52 4/9 11:00
SSW 81 4/9 09:48
Tseung Kwan O S 52 4/9 07:49 SSW 12 4/9 02:00
Tsing Yi Shell Oil Depot SSW 40 4/9 07:47 S 20 4/9 04:00
Tuen Mun Government Offices SW 54 4/9 07:13 SSW 16 4/9 08:00
Waglan Island WSW 81 4/9 09:40 WSW 63 4/9 04:00
Wetland Park SSW 40 4/9 10:02 S 12 4/9 07:00
S 12 4/9 08:00
Wong Chuk Hang WSW 40 4/9 05:55 WNW 13 4/9 14:00

*The old wind station on the rooftop of Tap Mun Police Post is replaced by the new Tap Mun station on July 6, 2017.
*新塔門測風站在 2017 年 7 月 6 日取代在塔門警崗屋頂的舊測風站。

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by MAWAR from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (英文) (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

Station 2-Sep 3-Sep 4-Sep
Total Rainfall (mm)
Hong Kong Observatory
1.0
23.8
32.8
57.6
Hong Kong International Airport (HKA)
16.1
32.0
41.3
89.4
Cheung Chau (CCH)
21.0
35.5
63.5
120.0
H23 Aberdeen
0.5
16.5
32.0
49.0
N05 Fanling
2.0
35.0
32.5
69.5
N13 High Island
0.5
8.5
31.5
40.5
K04 Jordan Valley
0.0
6.5
59.5
66.0
N06 Kwai Chung
1.0
62.0
55.0
118.0
H12 Mid Levels
5.5
49.5
55.0
110.0
N09 Sha Tin
0.5
5.5
19.5
25.5
H19 Shau Kei Wan
0.5
12.5
30.5
43.5
SEK Shek Kong
9.0
29.5
20.5
59.0
K06 So Uk Estate
5.5
46.5
55.5
107.5
R31 Tai Mei Tuk
[0.5]
0.5
[39.0]
[40.0]
R21 Tap Shek Kok
[4.0]
14.5
[60.5]
[79.0]
TMR Tuen Mun Reservoir
5.8
21.2
59.9
86.9
N17 Tung Chung
18.5
78.0
53.0
149.5

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Fri Nov 15 2019 05:24:30 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Thu Nov 08 2018

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