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Astronomical Info / 天文資訊 > Special Astronomical Events / 特別天文事件 > Eclipse Glossary 日月食術語 [Refresh 更新]

Eclipse Glossary 日月食術語

Term in English
英文名稱
Term in Chinese
中文名稱
Meaning / Explanation
意義或解釋
Altitude 高度角

Object's elevation from horizon, usually stated in degrees. It is one of the two coordinates in the horizontal coordinate system, the other being azimuth.
物件的仰角 (如天頂為 90 度),單位通常為度。高度角是地平座標系統的其中一個座標;另一個為方位角

Angular diameter 角直徑 Diameter of an object quoted in angular measures. For instance, a "180-degree sea view" is one in which the angular diameter of the sea is 180 degrees or π radians. The Sun's and the Moon's angular diameters as seen from earth are both about 0.5 degrees.
天體的視直徑,以角度形式表示。例如 "180 度海景" 指的就是海的角直徑為 180 度 (或 π 弧度)。從地球上看,太陽和月球的角直徑均約為 0.5 度。
Annular Eclipse 環食 An eclipse in which the shadow cone of the obscuring object is not large enough to fully cover the object being obscured. When used alone, annular eclipses usually refer to those of the Sun, as Earth's umbral shadow is always large enough to engulf the whole Moon during a lunar eclipse.
當掩蓋物的影錐比較細小而不足以把被掩蓋的天體完全遮蓋時,環食便會發生。在食中,因為地球的影子比月球大得多,所以只會有日環食而沒有月環食。
Annularity 環食階段 The period when the Moon is fully inscribed in the Sun (during a solar eclipse).
日食中月球影子完全在太陽圓盤裡面的階段 (太陽圓盤比月球影子大)。
Annular-total eclipse 全環食 See "Hybrid eclipse".
請參見 "Hybrid eclipse"。
Anomalistic month 近點月

The time between two passages at the perigee (of the Moon). Due to lunar precession, this time is longer than that if the perigee's position was fixed. An anomalistic month averages 27.55 days.
月球連續兩次經過近地點所需的時間。由於月歲差的關係,這個時間比近地點不變的情況下所需之時間長。一個近點月平均有 27.55 日。

Antumbra 偽本影 The imaginary extension of the umbral cone beyond the location where light rays from the emitting source converge. Annular eclipse can be seen inside the antumbra.
為掩蓋物的影錐 (光線匯集點外) 之延伸。在偽本影區可以看見環食
Aphelion 遠日點 The point in an orbit around the Sun that is farthest away from it. Earth's aphelion usually falls on July 3-7.
在環繞太陽的軌道裡距離太陽最遠的一點。地球通常於 7 月 3 至 7 日距離太陽最遠。
Apogee 遠地點 The point in an orbit around the Earth that is farthest away from it.
在環繞地球的軌道裡距離地球最遠的一點。
Ascending node 升交點 Usually used to denote the point reached when an object is moving north and crossing the plane of reference. An example is the point reached when the Moon is moving north and crossing the ecliptic.
一個天體在軌道上向北 (上方) 移動並經過一個參考平面時,其相交點就是升交點。例子為月球向北移並經過黃道平面時的那一點。
Azimuth 方位角

The compass direction (true bearing) of an object in the sky, measured from the north. It is one of the two coordinates in the horizontal coordinate system, the other being altitude.
由北起順時針的角度,用來表示天體的位置。方位角是地平座標系統的其中一個座標;另一個為高度角

Baily's beads 倍里珠 An effect occurring just before second contact or just after third contact of a total solar eclipse, when the Moon's irregular surface makes sunlight appear as beads at certain parts of the disk.
日全食第二次接觸前或第三次接觸後發生的現象。當月球凹凸不平的表面幾乎完全覆蓋太陽時,部份太陽光會被月球凸出的地方分割開,看起來就像一顆顆圓珠般,是為倍里珠。
Central eclipse 中心食 A central solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow axis touches Earth; a central lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth's shadow axis touches the Moon. Whenever a solar eclipse is central, there always exists places on Earth that can observe totality/annularity. A central lunar eclipse is necessarily a total eclipse of the Moon.
當月球的影軸於日食過程中經過地球時,該次日食便為中心食;月食方面,當地球的影軸於月食過程中經過月球時,該次的食就稱為中心食。中心日食的類型必為環食全食全環食;而中心月食的類型必為月全食。
Chromosphere 色球層 A layer of the Sun which is above the photosphere, and it appears red in colour. It is in fact hotter than the photosphere.
在太陽光球外面的一層,呈紅色。值得留意的是色球層可以比光球熱得多。
Corona 日冕 Atmosphere of the Sun and is extremely hot (1 million degrees C/K). Since it is much dimmer than the photosphere, it was only visible during a total solar eclipse before the invention of coronagraph.
太陽的大氣層,氣溫高達一百萬攝氏度。由於日冕比光球暗,在日冕儀發明前人們只能在日全食期間看到日冕。
Coronagraph 日冕儀 An instrument that can block out the intense light from a star so that adjacent structures are revealed. It is mostly used to block out sunlight from the photosphere to reveal the corona.
利用 "人造日全食" ,讓觀測者看到平時被光球的光芒覆蓋的日冕
Danjon scale --- A scale proposed by Andre-Louis Danjon and is used to determine the colour and luminosity of the eclipsed Moon. The value ranges from 0 to 4 with 0 being a very dark eclipse and 4 a very bright orange or copper-red Moon.
Danjon 等級是用來評定月球在月全食時的外觀。等級由 0 至 4;0 代表非常暗的月食 (月球幾乎看不見),而 4 則代表月球在全食時呈鮮亮橙或銅紅色。
Delta-T (ΔT) ΔT Time difference as given by [Terrestrial Time (theoretical, uniform scale)] minus [Universal Time (based on Earth's rotation)]. Since Earth's rotation speed is slowly declining, the value of ΔT is increasing with time (for the present era).
地球時 [均勻時間標準] 減去國際標準時 [隨地球自轉速度變更] 的時間差。由於地球的自轉速度逐漸變慢,現在 ΔT 的數值是隨時間上升的。
Descending node 降交點 Usually used to denote the point reached when an object is moving south and crossing the plane of reference. An example is the point reached when the Moon is moving south and crossing the ecliptic.
一個天體在軌道上向南 (下方) 移動並經過一個參考平面時,其相交點就是降交點。例子為月球向南移並經過黃道平面時的那一點。
Diamond ring effect 鑽石環效應 Occurs during a total solar eclipse when only one baily's bead remains, or in practice, when a patch of sunlight can be seen at one side of the disk, resembling a diamond ring (this usually happens before baily's beads appear before totality or after baily's beads are formed after the end of totality).
通常於日全食倍里珠出現末段和日全食後倍里珠出現前段發生。當只有一粒倍里珠在太陽圓盤時 (實務上為光束只在太陽一面可見時),該圓盤看上去就像環裡突出一粒鑽石般,因而得名。
Draconic month 交點月 The time between two passages at the ascending node (of the Moon). It averages 27.21 days and is also called nodical month.
月球連續兩次經過升交點所需的時間。一個交點月平均有 27.21 日。
Ecliptic 黃道 The plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. As seen from Earth, it is also a path that the Sun traces out in a year.
地球圍繞太陽公轉的平面。從地球上看,黃道亦是太陽一年裡在空中的軌跡。
First contact 第一次接觸 Normally used in solar eclipse, denoting the instant when the Moon starts to obscure the Sun.
通常於日食時使用,指太陽開始被月球食去的一刻。
Fourth contact 第四次接觸 Normally used in solar eclipse, denoting the instant when the Moon fully leaves the Sun's disk.
通常於日食時使用,指太陽不再被月球食去的一刻。
Gamma 伽馬數 The gamma of a solar (lunar) eclipse is the minimum distance, in terms of Earth radius, between the Moon's (Earth's) shadow axis and the centre of Earth (Moon) during the eclipse
()食中月(地)球影軸距離地(月)心的最短距離 (單位為地球半徑)。
Greatest eclipse 食甚 / 最大食 In solar eclipses, greatest eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow axis is closest to the Earth's centre. When this happens, the point of Earth's surface where the Moon's shadow axis makes contact with is marked on eclipse maps as "the point of greatest eclipse". In lunar eclipses, greatest eclipse occurs when the Earth's shadow axis is closest to the Moon's centre.
日食中,最大食出現在月球影軸距離地心最近的一剎那。最大食地點就是該刻影軸接觸地球表面的那一點。在月食中,最大食出現在地球影軸距離月心最近的一剎那。
Hybrid Eclipse 全環食 A (solar) eclipse which has both annular and total phases. This may occur when the Moon's angular diameter is about the same as that of the Sun as seen on Earth, where Earth's own curvature might allow Moon's umbra to touch the surface occasionally during the course of the eclipse. Also called "annular-total eclipse".
擁有環食全食階段的()食。當日/月球的角直徑比例非常接近一的時候,地球表面的弧度可能會容許月球本影於日食中段擦過地面,從而令某些地方看到全食。
Latitude 緯度 For any point on Earth, the latitude is its angular distance south or north from the equator, usually quoted in degrees. The other related coordinate is longitude.
緯度為地球上某一點距離赤道的角度 (赤道以南或以北)。相關座標為經度
Longitude 經度 For any point on Earth, the longitude is the angular distance east or west from an arbitrarily defined meridian, usually quoted in degrees. The Greenwich meridian was adopted in 1884 by the International Meridian Conference as the line with zero degrees of longitude. The other related coordinate is latitude.
經度為地球上某一點距離子午線的角度 (子午線以東或以西)。國際本初子午線大會於 1884 年把橫過英國格林尼治天文台的一條經線定為參考線,在該線上經度為零。相關座標為緯度
Lunar Eclipse 月食 It occurs when the Earth is exactly between the Sun and the Moon, so that sunlight to the Moon is blocked.
當地球在太陽和月球中間,阻擋太陽射去月球的光線時,月食便會發生。
Magnitude 食分 In solar eclipses, the magnitude is the fraction of the Sun's diameter obscured by the Moon. For lunar eclipses, the magnitude is the fraction of the Moon's diameter covered by the Earth's shadow (umbral magnitude or penumbral magnitude, depending on the type of shadow we are referring to). Magnitude is not to be confused with obscuration, which measures the fraction of area covered.
日食食分為太陽被月球掩蓋的直徑百份比,而月食食分則為月球被地球影子掩蓋的直徑百份比 (如用地球的本影作參考,是為 "本影食分";如用地球的半影作參考,則為 "半影食分")。食分和掩蓋面積比的定義並不相同。
Nodical month 交點月 See "Draconic month".
請參見 "Draconic month"。
Non-central eclipse 非中心食 A non-central solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow axis does not hit Earth, but part of its shadow is cast on Earth; A non-central lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon does not touch Earth's shadow axis at all during the whole eclipse. Partial solar eclipses must be non-central, but non-central solar eclipses are not necessarily partial. A non-central lunar eclipse can be partial, total or penumbral. (In some definitions, since partial and penumbral eclipses must be non-central, centrality is only defined for total eclipses.)
當月球的半 / 本影掃過地球,但影軸並未經過地球表面時,日食仍會發生,稱為 "非中心食"。在月食中,如月球在整個過程中並未觸及地球影軸,該次月食便為非中心食。日偏食必為非中心食,但在極少數情況下非中心日食可以是全食環食的。非中心月食可以是月偏食、月全食或半影月食。(在部分定義中,由於月偏食和半影月食必為非中心食,它們只會於月全食中再細分中心食或非中心食)
Obscuration 掩蓋面積比 In solar (lunar) eclipses, the obscuration is the fraction of the Sun's (Moon's) area covered by the Moon (Earth's shadow). Obscuration is not to be confused with magnitude, which measures the fraction of diameter covered.
() 食中,掩蓋面積比為太陽 (月球) 被月球 (地影) 遮蓋的面積比例。掩蓋面積比和食分的定義並不相同。
Partial Eclipse 偏食 An eclipse in which the obscured object is only partly eclipsed by the obscuring object. Partial solar eclipses occur when the Moon's penumbra touches Earth; partial lunar eclipses occur when the only part of the Moon passes through Earth's umbra.
當掩蓋物只把被掩蓋的天體部份遮蔽時,偏食便會發生。地球上被月球半影掃過的地方可見偏食,而當只有部份月球進入地球本影時,偏食便會發生。
Penumbra 半影 The part of a shadow where only some, but not all, light rays from the emitting source are blocked.
影錐中未能完全遮蔽被掩蓋物件的部份,是為半影。
Penumbral Eclipse 半影(月)食 An eclipse in which the object being obscured only passes through the penumbra of the obscuring object. Usually referred to eclipses of the Moon, in which the moon will only be dimmer but not eclipsed ("eaten away") as seen on Earth.
當被掩蓋的天體只經過掩蓋物的半影時,半影食便會發生。半影食通常用來形容月食,其球體只能被地球半影而非本影覆蓋。
Perigee 近地點 The point in an orbit around the Earth that is closest to it.
在環繞地球的軌道裡距離地球最近的一點。
Perihelion 近日點 The point in an orbit around the Sun that is closest to it. Earth's perihelion usually falls on January 2-5.
在環繞太陽的軌道裡距離太陽最近的一點。地球通常於 1 月 2 至 5 日距離太陽最近。
Photosphere 光球 The part of a star where light radiates outwards (and perceived by us).
光球為恆星的可見光向外輻射的一層。
Precession 歲差 Movement (rotation) of the axis of a rotating object. In particular, precession of the equinoxes is the change in the orientation of Earth's axis which resembles a wobbling top, a complete cycle of which takes approximately 25,800 years.
歲差是指旋轉物件的自轉軸移動或繞另一轉軸旋轉的現象。其中 "分點歲差" 是指地球的自轉軸所發生的歲差現象 (地球進行一個完整的歲差圈需要約 25,800 年的時間)。
Prominence 日珥 Gaseous formation extending beyond the Sun's surface, usually forming a loop.
由太陽色球層向外噴出的氣體,有時會以圈狀展示。
Saros 沙羅週期 A period of 18 years 11 days and 8 hours (6585.3 days) that a solar or lunar eclipse with similar characteristics will recur. In the case of solar eclipses, the shape of the path may be nearly identical but is shifted west because of the extra 8 hours. It is approximately the LCM (lowest common multiple) of the synodic period (29.53 days), draconic period (27.21 days), and the anomalistic period (27.55 days) of the Moon.
沙羅週期為 18 年 11 日又 8 小時 (6585.3 日) 的週期。發生於一個沙羅週期後的食通常會擁有與之前一次相似的特徵。相隔一個沙羅週期的日食通常會有差不多的全/環食軌跡,但由於沙羅週期並不是整數日,該軌跡將向西移約三分之一個地球的距離。沙羅週期日數約為朔望月週期 (29.53 日)、交點月週期 (27.21 日) 和近點月週期 (27.55 日) 的最小公倍數。
Second contact 第二次接觸 Normally used in solar eclipse, denoting the instant when totality or annularity starts.
通常於日食時使用,指環食全食開始的一刻。
Shadow bands 日影條 About one minute before/after totality (solar eclipse), alternate dark and light stripes of light may move quickly across light-coloured surfaces. They are called shadow bands and are caused by the illumination from the very narrow crescent of the Sun. The mechanism is the same as that causing stars to twinkle, just that in normal circumstances the Sun is too large and bright to twinkle in the sky.
日全食前後約一分鐘,日食地點淺色的平面或會看到深淺相間的光條快速移動,它們便是日影條,由幾乎被完全食去的太陽所造成。日影條的形成跟晚間星光閃爍的原理相同,只不過於大多數時間太陽非常大而光亮而不致閃爍而已。
Solar Eclipse 日食 This is technically "obscuration of the Sun", in which the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth where people on Earth see a Sun that is "eaten away" by the Moon. Solar eclipses can be partial, annular, total or hybrid.
當月球在太陽和地球中間,阻擋太陽射去地球的光線時,日食便會發生。在地球上某地方的人可以看見太陽被食去。日食可分為日偏食日環食日全食日全環食
Synodic month 朔望月 The time taken for the moon to reappear at the same ecliptic longitude of the Sun as seen from Earth, which averages 29.53 days. Synodic period is related to the phase of the moon, and two new moons are separated by this same amount of time.
月球連續兩次到達與太陽相同黃經的時間。一個朔望月平均有 29.53 日。朔望週期跟月相有密切的關係,亦為連續兩次新月的時間間隔。
Third contact 第三次接觸 Normally used in solar eclipse, denoting the instant when totality or annularity ends.
通常於日食時使用,指環食全食剛完結的一刻。
Total Eclipse 全食 An eclipse in which an object is totally obscured. Total solar eclipses occur when the Moon's umbra touches Earth; total lunar eclipses occur when the Moon fully enters Earth's umbra.
當掩蓋物把被掩蓋的天體完全遮蔽時,全食便會發生。地球上被月球本影掃過的地方可見日全食,而當整個月球進入地球本影時,月全食便會發生。
Totality 全食階段 The period when the Sun or Moon is totally obscured.
為月球完全覆蓋太陽圓盤,或地球本影完全覆蓋月球的階段。
Umbra 本影 The part of a shadow where all light rays from the emitting source are blocked.
影錐中完全遮蔽被掩蓋物件的部份,是為本影。
UTC 世界協調時 Coordinated Universal Time. Time standard based on the International Atomic Time. In everyday language UTC can be interchanged with GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) (but not in technical context as GMT has ambiguous meanings).
世界協調時是基於國際原子時的標準。日常用語中世界協調時跟格林尼治標準時間相同 (但於技術性層面上,格林尼治標準時間的定義並不清晰)。

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