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2011 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉


The Poll 關於是次選舉

This is the fourth annual "Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of the Year" election held by Hong Kong Weather Watch (HKWW). 36 astronomical, geographic and meteorological events during 2011 were selected and members of the public could cast their votes on up to 12 incidents (i.e. one-third) that, in their opinions, were the most significant. Apart from the 36 selected events, voters could also make use of the "Others" column to suggest some other events that were not on the list.

In addition to HKWW, twelve other meteorological websites also participated in the election by including a link to the voting page in their sites. They include (in alphabetical order):

We would like to thank the above websites for their support in this event, and HKSON for creating the banner for this election.

這是香港天氣觀測站第四年舉辦年度天文、地理及氣象大事選舉。我們於 2011 年發生的天文、地理及氣象事件中挑選出 36 件大事以供投選,而投票人士最多可選出 12 項 (即三份之一) 他們認為該年裡最重要的事件。除了已挑選出來的 36 項事件外,投票者亦可利用 "其他" 一欄來投選不在表中的事件。除本站外,還有 12 個與氣象相關的網站參與本選舉,它們均在站內放進投票頁的超連結。該 12 個網站分別為 (以英文字母排序) :

本站在此對上述參與網站致以謝意,亦感謝 HKSON 製作是次選舉所用的橫幅。

Voting Period 投票期

In this year (2011)'s election, the voting period lasted for 23 days; it commenced at 00:00 HKT on 24th December, 2011 and concluded at 23:59 HKT on 15th January, 2012.

2011 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉的投票期由 2011 年 12 月 24 日 香港時間 00:00 至 2012 年 1 月 15 日 香港時間 23:59,為期 23 天。

The 36 Selected Events in This Year's Poll 本年所選出的 36 項事件

Please visit here for the events in chronological order.

請按這裡以瀏覽該 36 項事件 (按時間先後排序)。

Results of the Election 選舉結果

In this year's election, four votes go to "Others" column; those events are listed in a table below. 在本次選舉中,"其他" 一欄共佔四票,所述事件詳見下表。

Number of voters 投票人數 : 232
Total number of events selected1 總事件選擇數1: 2,091
Average number of events selected per person 人均事件選擇數 : 9.01

In the table below, events are listed in chronological order should ties occur. 在下表中,如某些事件名次得票相同,它們將以發生時間順序排列。

The 36 selected events listed in the voting page: 投票頁顯示之 36 件事件 : [Click here for bar chart (Chinese only) 按此顯示棒形圖]

Rank
名次
Event
事件
# of votes
票數
Percentage2
百分比2
1

(3月11日) 日本仙台市對開的太平洋發生 9.0 級地震,並引發海嘯,席捲日本東部沿岸,造成超過一萬五千人死亡、三千人失蹤。海嘯同時令福島第一核電站冷卻供電系統失靈,以致反應堆內壓力大增,造成輻射洩漏和廣泛污染。

(Mar 11) A magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of eastern Japan and initiated a large scale tsunami. More than 15,000 people were killed and 3,000 went missing. The tsunami also caused the cooling system at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant to break down, leading to rapid pressure increase in the reactors, and consequently radiation leakage as well as widespread pollution.

201
86.64
2

(9月29日) 颱風納沙靠近華南沿岸,天文台發出今年唯一一個八號烈風或暴風信號。信號於日間大部分時間生效,市面活動幾乎全部暫停。

(Sep 29) Typhoon Nesat approached southern China and the Observatory issued the only #8 Gale or Storm Signal this year. The signal was in effect for most of daytime, halting almost all activities in the territory.

178
76.72
3

(11月8日) 一熱帶氣旋於地中海發展,並被編號為 01M。它於法國南部登陸,為當地和意大利部分地區帶來狂風和暴雨。

(Nov 8) Tropical cyclone 01M developed in the Mediterranean Sea. It later made landfall at southern France, resulting in squalls and heavy rains to that area and parts of Italy.

106
45.69
3

(12月16日) 熱帶風暴天鷹登陸菲律賓棉蘭老島,為當地帶來大雨、洪災和泥石流,造成超過一千人死亡,令天鷹成為本年造成最多人死亡的熱帶氣旋。

(Dec 16) Tropical storm Washi made landfall at Mindanao, causing torrential rain, flooding and landslides. The death toll reached 1,000, making Washi the deadliest tropical cyclone worldwide this year.

106
45.69
5

(8月) 西北太平洋本月較少熱帶氣旋形成,香港整月沒有發出熱帶氣旋警告信號,是自 1989 年來首次。

(Aug) Few tropical cyclones formed in northwestern Pacific Ocean this month, and none necessitated tropical cyclone signals in Hong Kong, the first time since 1989.

93
40.09
6

(1月) 本港一月普遍寒冷,月高溫未達 20 度,是自 1918 年來首次。該月 14 天出現寒冷天氣,較正常高一倍。

(Jan) HK experienced a cold January with monthly maximum temperature below 20 degrees, the first occurrence since 1918. The month also saw 14 days with cold weather, twice the normal figure of 7.

90
38.79
7

(4月) 龍捲風席捲美國,其中 4 月 25 至 28 日的爆發為當地史上最猛烈的一次,共出現超過 300 個龍捲風,造成 322 人死亡。

(Apr) Tornados hit the US in April, and in particular the outbreak from April 25 to 28 was the most intense ever recorded, creating more than 300 tornados and causing 322 deaths.

87
37.50
8

(10月) 泰國因持續暴雨而引發水災,洪水於 10 月底湧入首都曼谷,造成廣泛破壞。

(Oct) Thailand was affected by flooding as a result of prolonged rainfall. Flood water entered capital Bangkok in late October, causing widespread damage.

86
37.07
9

(12月10日) 繼六月後亞洲可見另一次月全食。是次月食進行期間香港天朗氣清,市民能觀賞月食整個過程。

(Dec 10) Another total lunar eclipse took place after the June eclipse. Skies in Hong Kong were clear during the eclipse and observers were able to view the full eclipse without obscuration.

82
35.34
10

(2月2日) 氣旋雅思以最猛烈的五級強度登陸澳洲昆士蘭州,中心風速超過每小時 215 公里,造成約 36 億美元損失,並間接令一人死亡。

(Feb 2) Cyclone Yasi made landfall at Queensland, Australia as a category 5 cyclone, the strongest in its classification scale. Its maximum winds reached 215 km/h and damages totaled 3.6 billion US dollars. Yasi also indirectly killed one person.

66
28.45
11

(5月22日) 香港先後受南海北部北上和廣東內陸南下的低壓槽影響,早上和晚間各下大雨,兩次均令天文台發出紅色暴雨警告,當天廣泛地區錄得 100 甚至 200 毫米雨量。

(May 22) Hong Kong was affected by a trough coming from northern South China Sea in the morning and another from inland Guangdong at night. Both resulted in heavy rains and the Red Rainstorm Warning was issued twice during the day. 100 to 200 millimetres of rainfall were recorded over the territory.

64
27.59
12

(2月22日) 紐西蘭基督城發生 6.3 級地震,造成 181 人死亡。另一次餘震於 6 月 13 日發生,對該區造成更多破壞。

(Feb 22) Christchurch, New Zealand was struck by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake and 181 people were killed. An aftershock took place on June 13, causing more damage to the region.

61
26.29
13

(8月) 本港八月平均溫度 29.5 度,平 1990 和 1998 年八月的紀錄。本年天文台最高氣溫 35.0 度,於 8 月 7 日錄得。受颱風南瑪都的下沉氣流影響,香港八月底天氣酷熱,橫瀾島 8 月 29 日錄得高溫 38.1 度。

(Aug) Hong Kong's mean temperature in August was 29.5 degrees, equaling the record set in August 1990 and 1998. 35.0 degrees, the highest temperature at HK Observatory this year, was recorded on August 7. Due to the subsidence of Typhoon Nanmadol, Hong Kong was very hot in late August, with the mercury at Waglan Island reaching 38.1 degrees on August 29.

60
25.86
14

(7月12日) 海王星完成自於 1846 年發現以來圍繞太陽的首圈公轉。

(Jul 12) Neptune completed its first orbit around the Sun since its discovery in 1846.

59
25.43
15

(6月22日) 熱帶風暴海馬橫過南海北部,天文台發出三號強風信號。海馬於香港西南偏南 240 公里處掠過,本港普遍吹強風。

(Jun 22) Tropical storm Haima crossed the northern part of South China Sea, necessitated the #3 Strong Wind Signal in Hong Kong. Haima's closest point of approach to Hong Kong was 240 km to the SSW, and strong winds were generally observed locally.

58
25.00
16

(11月3日) 神舟八號成功與早前發射升空的目標飛行器天宮一號對接,而兩者於 14 日的第二次對接亦取得成功。

(Nov 3) Shenzhou 8 successfully docked with the Tiangong 1 space module, marking the first in Chinese history. Another attempt on November 14 was also successful.

57
24.57
17

(7月) 東非出現 60 年來最嚴重旱災,造成大範圍飢荒,超過一千萬人受災。

(Jul) The worst drought in 60 years hit East Africa. Hunger and malnutrition derived from the drought affected more than 10 million people in the region.

50
21.55
17

(12月5日) 天文學家宣布開普勒太空望遠鏡發現一個處於適居帶的行星開普勒-22b,距離地球約 600 光年。

(Dec 5) Astronomers announced the discovery of Kepler-22b by Kepler Space Telescope. Kepler-22b is situated in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star and is around 600 light-years away from Earth.

50
21.55
19

(8月28日) 颶風艾琳橫掃美國東岸,掠過紐約一帶,公共交通和經濟活動大受影響。

(Aug 28) Hurricane Irene swept across US east coast, passing areas near New York. Public transport and economic activity came to a standstill as a result.

47
20.26
20

(10月1日) 強颱風尼格登陸菲律賓,使早前納沙造成的災情變得更為惡劣。尼格隨後進入南海,天文台於 10 月 3 日發出三號強風信號,半日後直接以強烈季候風信號取代。

(Oct 1) Severe typhoon Nalgae struck the Philippines, worsening the devastation caused by Typhoon Nesat earlier. Nalgae later entered South China Sea and the Observatory issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal on October 3. The tropical cyclone signal was directly replaced by the Strong Monsoon Signal half a day later.

44
18.97
21

(6月16日) 今天出現一次月全食,歐、亞、非洲廣泛地區可見,但香港因天氣問題未能見到全食。

(Jun 16) A total lunar eclipse occurred and was visible in much of Europe, Asia and Africa. However, due to poor weather conditions, observers in Hong Kong could not see totality.

41
17.67
22

(9月23日) 美國一廢棄衛星返回地球,碎片墜落美國西岸對開的太平洋。

(Sep 23) A defunct US satellite re-entered Earth with debris falling into Pacific Ocean west of the United States.

40
17.24
23

(9月20日) 七名意大利地震學家因未能及時預測 2009 年拉奎拉地震而被控誤殺罪,於 9 月 20 日出庭應訊,各地科學家直斥控罪荒謬。

(Sep 20) Seven Italian seismologists were on trial after being charged with manslaughter for failing to predict the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009. This has sparked outrage in the scientific community.

38
16.38
24

(7月28日) 強烈熱帶風暴洛坦橫過南海北部,天文台再次發出三號強風信號。洛坦其後登陸海南島和越南北部,為當地帶來大雨。

(Jul 28) Severe tropical storm Nock-ten crossed northern South China Sea, necessitating another #3 Strong Wind Signal. Nock-ten later made landfall at Hainan and northern Vietnam, dropping heavy rains in those areas.

36
15.52
25

(1月27日) 紐約受暴風雪侵襲,當地機場暫停開放,紐約一月降雪量亦破紀錄。

(Jan 27) A blizzard struck New York, shutting down its airports. New York's total January snowfall also hit its all-time high.

33
14.22
26

(12月11日) 於南非德班舉行的 2011 年聯合國氣候變化大會結束,翌日加拿大宣布正式退出京都議定書,成為首個退出國家。

(Dec 11) The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference finished in Durban in South Africa, while Canada announced that it would withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol on the next day, the first country to do so.

30
12.93
27

(1月) 非洲南部、澳洲昆士蘭州和巴西里約熱內盧州分別受洪水侵襲,後者造成超過 900 人死亡,為當地造成最多人死亡的天災。

(Jan) Southern Africa, Queensland (Australia) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were affected by floods. The floods and mudslides in Rio de Janeiro caused 900 deaths and is the deadliest weather-related natural disaster in Brazilian history.

29
12.50
27

(5月) 長江中下游地區出現旱災,漁農業大受影響。多地由 6 月開始連續降水,出現洪災。

(May) Drought hit areas near Yangtze River and severely affected agriculture and fisheries. Most of these places received abundant rainfall since June, causing floods.

29
12.50
29

(9月3日) 強烈熱帶風暴塔拉斯登陸日本西部,當地受暴雨影響,多處出現水浸和泥石流,共造成 73 人死亡。

(Sep 3) Severe tropical storm Talas made landfall at western Japan, causing heavy rains, flooding and landslides. 73 people died from the disaster.

25
10.78
30

(4月17日) 受低壓槽影響,華南沿岸地區下暴雨,佛山更落冰雹,而香港亦發出本年首個黃色暴雨警告。

(Apr 17) Affected by a trough, heavy rains fell over southern China. Hail was observed at Foshan, while the first Amber Rainstorm Warning of the year was issued in Hong Kong.

24
10.34
31

(5月) 美國密西西比河氾濫,規模為過去一世紀最嚴重之一。其鄰近州份遭受水浸,損失達 20 億美元。

(May) Mississippi River and adjacent states were hit by one of the most severe floods in the past century, with damages reaching more than 2 billion USD.

22
9.48
32

(8月23日) 美國維珍尼亞州發生 5.8 級地震,為當地 100 年來最猛烈,首都華盛頓和加拿大多倫多亦感到震動。

(Aug 23) The US state of Virginia was struck by a magnitude 5.8 earthquake, the strongest to hit the region in a century. Capital Washington D.C. and some Canadian cities including Toronto also felt the tremor.

21
9.05
33

(3月20日) 呂宋海峽南部發生 6.0 級地震,香港部分市民有感,本地烈度為修訂麥加利地震烈度表的第三度。

(Mar 20) An earthquake of magnitude 6.0 occurred in southern Luzon Strait and was felt in Hong Kong. The intensity was estimated to be III on the modified Mercalli scale.

20
8.62
33

(11月26日) 美國發射好奇號火星車,用於探索火星是否存在適宜生命生存的環境。

(Nov 26) NASA launched the robotic Mars Science Laboratory with the aim of finding evidence for past or present life on Mars.

20
8.62
35

(10月29日) 美國東北部受暴風雪侵襲,紐約罕見地於 10 月出現降雪,中央公園降雪 2.9 吋,打破自 1869 年有紀錄以來 10 月降雪量。

(Oct 29) A nor'easter swept across northeastern US, causing rare snowfall in October. 2.9 inches of snow fell at Central Park, New York, breaking the October snowfall record since 1869 when records began.

18
7.76
36

(11月9日) 搭載中國探測器螢火一號的俄羅斯火星探測器福布斯-土壤於發射後發生故障,未能成功變軌而停留在低地軌道,預計於 2012 年 1 月墜回地球。

(Nov 9) Carrying Chinese Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1, Russian's Fobos-Grunt spacecraft failed to change its course and remained in low Earth orbit. It is expected to fall back to Earth in January 2012.

16
6.90

Votes for "Others" column: "其他" 欄所填寫之項目

Event3
事件
3
# of votes
票數

(12月14至15日) 雙子座流星雨達到高潮。雙子座流星雨屬較大型的流星雨,僅次於獅子座流星雨。

(Dec 14 and 15) Geminids at its peak this year. The Geminids are a major meteor shower, just weaker than the Leonids.

1

(12月30日) 薩摩亞時區由世界協調時慢 11 小時改為快 13 小時,令該國沒有 2011 年 12 月 30 日。

(Dec 30) Samoa changed its time zone from UTC-11 to UTC+13, skipping December 30, 2011 altogether.

1

(2月14日) 隨著太陽極大期到來,太陽發出自 2008 年以來最強的閃焰,日冕物質拋射影響地球無線電系統。

(Feb 14) As solar maximum approached, the Sun emitted its largest solar flare since 2008. The coronal mass ejection disrupted radio communications on Earth.

1

(4月) 本月香港天氣反常,雨量只有 36 毫米,為平常的百分之 19。總日照時數大幅高於平均值,而平均雲量亦大幅偏低。同時本月異常乾燥,平均相對濕度為百分之 76,較正常低 7 個百分點。

(Apr) Abnormal weather was observed in Hong Kong, with monthly rainfall (36 mm) reaching only 19% of the normal figure. Total bright sunshine duration was much higher than average, while the mean cloud amount was much lower. April 2011 was also abnormally dry; the average relative humidity was only 76%, 7 percentage points lower than climatological normal.

1

Notes 備註 :

1Each person can select up to 12 events per submission, and can submit only once. Votes in "Others" category have been included. 每人每次可最多投選 12 項事件;每人只可投票一次。投選 "其他" 一欄的票數已計算在內。
2Percentage of total voters. 佔總投票人數的百分比。
3Wordings may be changed to facilitate reading, but the meaning stays the same. Invalid statements, statements whose validity is unknown and those not interpretable are indicated with a question mark. 為方便閱讀,字眼稍作更改,但意義不變。不正確 / 準確度不明 / 未能理解的描述以問號標示。

Resources for the Top Three Events 首三名事件有關資源

Here we provide links to the resources related to the top three events in this election. 在這裡我們提供有關選舉中獲得首三名的事件之資料。

[Rank #1 第一位] Massive earthquake and tsunami near eastern Japan | 日本東部附近強烈地震及海嘯
[Rank #2 第二位] Typhoon NESAT strikes southern China | 颱風納沙吹襲華南
[Rank #3 第三位] TC formation in the Mediterranean Sea | 地中海熱帶氣旋
[(Tied) Rank #3 並列第三位] Tropical storm WASHI strikes the Philippines | 熱帶風暴天鷹吹襲菲律賓

Finally, we would like to thank all voters for their participation, who together contributed to its success. See you next year!

最後,我們在此對所有投票人士致謝,令本選舉得以圓滿完成。明年再見!

Image Acknowledgement 相片來源

The following lists the sources of images used in our banner for the election. They are (from left to right):

本年選舉橫幅採用了以下圖片 (由左至右):

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Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Thu Jan 01 2015

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