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2016 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉


The Poll 關於是次選舉

This is the ninth annual "Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of the Year" election held by Hong Kong Weather Watch (HKWW). 37 astronomical, geographic and meteorological events during 2016 were selected and members of the public could cast their votes on up to 12 incidents (i.e. one-third) that, in their opinions, were the most significant. Apart from the selected events, voters could also make use of the "Others" column to suggest some other events that were not on the list.

In addition to HKWW, seven other meteorological websites also participated in the election by including a link to the voting page in their sites. They include (in alphabetical order):

We would like to thank the above websites for their support in this event, and HKSON for creating the banner.

這是香港天氣觀測站第九年舉辦年度天文、地理及氣象大事選舉。我們於 2016 年發生的天文、地理及氣象事件中挑選出 37 件大事以供投選,而投票人士最多可選出 12 項 (即三份之一) 他們認為該年裡最重要的事件。除了已挑選事件外,投票者亦可利用 "其他" 一欄來投選不在表中的事件。除本站外,還有 7 個與氣象相關的網站參與本選舉,它們均在站內放進投票頁的超連結。該 7 個網站分別為 (以英文字母排序) :

本站在此對上述參與網站致以謝意,亦感謝 HKSON 製作是次選舉所用的橫幅。

Voting Period 投票期

The voting period for this year (2016)'s election lasted for 14 days; it commenced at 00:00 HKT on 11th January, 2017 and concluded at 23:59 HKT on 24th January, 2017.

2016 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉的投票期由 2017 年 1 月 11 日 香港時間 00:00 至 2017 年 1 月 24 日 香港時間 23:59,為期 14 天。

The 37 Selected Events in This Year's Poll 本年所選出的 37 項事件

Please visit here for the events in chronological order.

請按這裡以瀏覽該 37 項事件 (按時間先後排序)。

Results of the Election 選舉結果

In this year's election, seven votes (excluding invalid and repeated ones) went to the "Others" column; these are shown in a separate table below. 在本次選舉中,"其他" 一欄共佔七票 (已剔除無效及重複票),詳情請見下表。

Number of voters 投票人數 : 116
Total number of events selected1 總事件選擇數1: 1,017
Average number of events selected per person 人均事件選擇數 : 8.77

In the table below, events are listed in chronological order should ties occur. 在下表中,如某些事件名次得票相同,它們將以發生時間順序排列。

The 37 selected events listed in the voting page: 投票頁顯示之 37 件事件 : [Click here for bar chart (Chinese only) 按此顯示棒形圖]

The intense cold surge in January which led to the coldest temperatures in almost 60 years attracted 93.10% or 108 votes; this is the most significant event in 2016. This is followed by the rare occurrence of the Black Rainstorm Warning and the #8 Gale or Storm Signal in October (80.17% or 93 votes), and the earliest Amber Rainstorm Warning in January (60.34% or 70 votes).

一月強烈寒潮令香港出現近 60 年來的最低氣溫,此事件共獲 93.10% 或 108 票,成為 2016 年最觸目事件。緊隨其後的為十月罕有地接連發出黑色暴雨警告及八號烈風或暴風信號 (80.17% 或 93 票),及一月發出最早的黃色暴雨警告 (60.34% 或 70 票)。

Rank
名次
Event
事件
# of votes
票數
Percentage2
百分比2
1

1月24日: 一股強烈寒潮到達華南,香港天文台當天下午錄得最低氣溫 3.1 度,是自 1957 年以來的最低溫度,亦為有紀錄以來的第六低溫。天文台亦錄得海平面氣壓 1037.7 百帕,打破先前紀錄。大帽山氣溫下降至 -6.0 度,並有凍雨及冰粒報告。

Jan 24: An intense surge of northeast monsoon reached southern China. A minimum air temperature of 3.1 degrees was recorded at the HK Observatory in the afternoon, making it the coldest day since 1957 and the sixth coldest on record. A record-high mean sea-level pressure of 1037.7 hPa was also registered. The mercury reached -6.0 degrees at Tai Mo Shan; freezing rain and ice pellets were observed.

108 93.10
2

10月中下旬: 颱風莎莉嘉及海馬於 10 月較後時間相繼影響香港。雖然莎莉嘉橫過南海時緯度較低,但仍令天文台發出三號強風信號,並引發大雨,黑色暴雨警告於 10 月 19 日生效,這是該信號首次於 10 月發出。其後,海馬橫過呂宋北部並於南海轉向,於香港以東約 110 公里外登陸,天文台於 21 年來首次在 10 月發出八號烈風或暴風信號。

Mid- to late October: Typhoons Sarika and Haima affected Hong Kong in the latter parts of October. While Sarika crossed the South China Sea at a relatively low latitude, it necessitated the #3 Strong Wind Signal and triggered heavy rain that caused the Black Rainstorm Warning to be issued on October 19. It was the first such issuance ever in October. Meanwhile, Haima impacted northern Luzon and gradually recurved in South China Sea, making landfall about 110 km east of the territory. The #8 Gale or Storm Signal was issued for the first time in October in 21 years.

93 80.17
3

1月5日: 一個高空擾動影響香港,本港多處錄得超過 30 毫米雨量。天文台當天下午 1 至 2 時錄得有紀錄以來當月最高時雨量 37 毫米。是次降雨亦令天文台發出黃色暴雨警告,是自 1992 年暴雨警告系統開始運作以來最早發出的一次。

Jan 5: An upper-air disturbance affected Hong Kong and brought more than 30 mm of rainfall to many parts of the territory. The 37 mm/hr rate recorded at the Observatory between 1 pm and 2 pm was the highest hourly rainfall for January on record. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was issued, the earliest since the rainstorm warning system commenced operation in 1992.

70 60.34
4

8月2日: 颱風妮妲靠近華南,於大鵬半島登陸,並於香港天文台 40 公里外掠過。八號烈風及暴風信號於 8 月 1 日晚及 2 日早上生效。風暴於香港造成至少 12 人受傷。

Aug 2: Typhoon Nida approached southern China and made landfall at Dapeng Peninsula, skirting past the HK Observatory at a distance of 40 km. The #8 Gale or Storm Signal was issued during the night of August 1 and morning of August 2. At least 12 people were injured in the territory.

69 59.48
5

5月10日: 一道低壓槽為本港帶來超過 70 毫米雨量,天文台於早上兩度發出紅色暴雨警告,其中首次於上午 7 時 35 分發出,而教育局於 7 時 40 分宣布所有中小學停課。由於當時正值學生上學時間,部分市民批評天文台的做法。

May 10: A trough of low pressure yielded more than 70 mm of rainfall in Hong Kong; the Red Rainstorm Warning was issued twice in the morning. The Observatory faced criticism for issuing the first such warning at 7:35 am, when most students are on their way to the school. The Education Bureau announced school closure at 7:40 am.

63 54.31
6

6、7及10月: 香港天文台錄得六月平均氣溫為 29.4 度,比正常高 1.5 度,為有紀錄以來第二高。在沒有熱帶氣旋影響下,天文台於 6 月 24 至 27 日連續 4 天高溫達 35.0 度,打破之前 1963 年 5 月 30 至 6 月 1 日連續三天的紀錄。此外,七月及十月的平均溫度分別為 29.8 及 26.8 度,均為此兩月份的最高紀錄。

Jun, Jul and Oct: The mean air temperature at the HK Observatory in June was 29.4 degrees, 1.5 degrees higher than normal and was the second highest on record. Without the effect of tropical cyclones, the maximum temperature at the Observatory surpassed 35.0 degrees for four consecutive days between June 24 and 27, breaking the old record of three days between May 30 and June 1, 1963. The mean temperatures of 29.8 and 26.8 degrees in July and October were also the highest on record for the respective months.

54 46.55
7

9月14日: 颱風莫蘭蒂增強至相當於五級颶風的強度,橫過呂宋海峽及台灣海峽,並於 9 月 15 日登陸福建省。以最低氣壓計算,莫蘭蒂成為自 2010 年的鮎魚以來之最強颱風。莫蘭蒂亦為有史以來登陸福建最強的颱風,共造成當地 30 人死亡,經濟損失達 26 億美元。雖然莫蘭蒂距離香港較遠,天文台亦對其發出一號戒備信號。

Sep 14: Typhoon Meranti became the strongest typhoon since Megi in 2010 by pressure as it intensified into a category-5 equivalent typhoon and crossed Luzon and Taiwan Strait, making landfall in Fujian on September 15. It was the strongest typhoon to make landfall in Fujian in recorded history; 30 lives were lost and damage amounted to around 2.6 billion US dollars. Despite its distance from Hong Kong, the #1 Standby Signal was issued.

52 44.83
8

1月: 香港天文台錄得一月總雨量 266.9 毫米,是正常 24.7 毫米的 10 倍,打破於 1887 年 214.3 毫米的紀錄。

Jan: A total rainfall of 266.9 mm was recorded at the HK Observatory in January, ten times the monthly normal of 24.7 mm and easily breaking the previous record of 214.3 mm set in 1887.

45 38.79
9

7月9日: 颱風尼伯特吹襲台灣南部及福建省,造成約 100 人死亡。受尼伯特外圍環流的下沉空氣影響,香港天氣酷熱,7 月 9 日天文台錄得最高氣溫 35.6 度,是有紀錄以來 7 月份的第二高。

Jul 9: Typhoon Nepartak impacted southern Taiwan and Fujian province, resulting in almost 100 deaths. Affected by the subsidence associated with Nepartak, it was very hot in Hong Kong; a maximum air temperature of 35.6 degrees was recorded at the HK Observatory on July 9, the second highest in July on record.

35 30.17
10

8月: 熱帶氣旋康森、燦都及蒲公英接連登陸北海道,是該地自 1951 年有紀錄以來首次一年受三個熱帶氣旋侵襲。

Aug: Tropical cyclones Conson, Chanthu and Mindulle made landfall in Hokkaido. This is the first time the region is struck by three tropical cyclones in a year since records began in 1951.

33 28.45
(=10)

11月14日: 當天的滿月是為自 1948 年以來最接近地球的一次,此「超級月亮」比一般的滿月大接近 7%。

Nov 14: The full moon was the closest to Earth since 1948. This 'supermoon' was around 7% larger than the typical full moon.

33 28.45
12

12月23日: 北海道遭受 50 年以來最強的暴雪侵襲,札幌錄得 96 厘米降雪,空中交通大受影響。

Dec 23: Hokkaido was struck by the heaviest snowstorm in 50 years, with 96 cm of snowfall recorded at Sapporo and serious disruption to air traffic.

32 27.59
13

2月6日: 台灣南部發生 6.4 級地震,造成 117 人死亡,當中大多數是由於一住宅樓宇倒塌致死。香港天文台共收到超過 100 宗有感地震報告,是次地震於香港的烈度為修訂麥加利烈度表中的第 IV 度。

Feb 6: A 6.4-magnitude earthquake struck southern Taiwan, resulting in 117 deaths. Most of the victims were killed when a residential building collapsed. The HK Observatory received more than 100 reports of felt tremor; the earthquake was rated IV on the modified Mercalli intensity scale.

26 22.41
14

10月上中旬: 由於流場偏弱,熱帶風暴艾利於南海徘徊並作不規則移動。香港天文台於 10 月 6 日發出一號戒備信號。風暴於 8 日減弱並移離,但其後於 13 日在越南對開海域重新發展。

Early to mid-October: Due to weak steering flow, tropical storm Aere lingered in northern South China Sea and moved erratically. The #1 Standby Signal was issued in Hong Kong on October 6. It weakened and moved away slowly on October 8, but later regenerated off the coast of Vietnam on October 13.

23 19.83
15

2月20日: 熱帶氣旋 Winston 成為五級風暴,為有史以來登陸斐濟最強的熱帶氣旋,並造成該國 44 人死亡,損失約達 14 億美元。

Feb 20: As a category 5 system, tropical cyclone Winston was the strongest to make landfall in Fiji in recorded history. There were 44 deaths in the archipelago and the total damage was estimated at 1.4 billion US dollars.

21 18.10
(=15)

8月17至18日: 受位於南海的一個季風低壓影響,香港天氣不穩定。該系統於當天發展為熱帶低氣壓,並於翌日增強為熱帶風暴電母。天文台於 17 日分別發出一號戒備及三號強風信號。電母其後進入北部灣並登陸越南北部,為該區帶來暴雨。

Aug 17-18: Affected by a monsoon depression in the South China Sea, the weather in Hong Kong was unstable. The system developed into a tropical depression on August 17 and intensified into tropical storm Dianmu the next day. The HK Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal and later the #3 Strong Wind Signal on August 17. Dianmu later moved into the Gulf of Tonkin and made landfall at northern Vietnam, brining torrential rain to the region.

21 18.10
17

4月: 本港四月極其潮濕陰暗,平均相對濕度達破紀錄的 89%,而總日照時間只有 55.4 小時,是正常的 54%。

Apr: The month of April was exceptionally humid and gloomy, with a mean relative humidity of 89% that broke previous records and a sunshine duration of only 55.4 hours, 54% of the normal figure.

20 17.24
(=17)

6月22日: 江蘇鹽城市受一股達 EF4 強度的龍捲風及其伴隨的雹暴侵襲,造成 99 人死亡。

Jun 22: A EF4 tornado and the associated heavy hailstorm hit Yancheng, Jiangsu, killing 99 people.

20 17.24
19

1月11及14日: 颶風 Pali 於 1 月 11 日成為中太平洋有紀錄以來最早形成的颶風,而颶風 Alex 則於 1 月 14 日成為北大西洋自 1938 年以來最早形成的颶風。

Jan 11 and 14: Hurricane Pali became the earliest hurricane on record in the central Pacific Ocean on January 11, while Hurricane Alex was the first in the north Atlantic Ocean on January 14 since 1938.

18 15.52
(=19)

4月16日: 日本及厄瓜多爾先後發生 7.0 及 7.8 級地震,分別造成 41 及 668 人死亡。

Apr 16: Successive earthquakes of magnitudes 7.0 and 7.8 struck Japan and Ecuador, with respective death tolls of 41 and 668.

18 15.52
(=19)

9月27日: 熱帶氣旋鮎魚吹襲台灣,其相關下沉氣流令香港天氣酷熱,天文台錄得最高氣溫 34.9 度,是有紀錄以來 9 月份的第二高。鮎魚亦令天文台於 9 月 28 日發出一號戒備信號。

Sep 27: Tropical cyclone Megi approached Taiwan; its subsidence resulted in very hot weather in Hong Kong, with a maximum air temperature of 34.9 recorded at the HK Observatory, the second highest in September on record. Megi also necessitated the #1 Standby Signal on September 28.

18 15.52
22

3月3日: 天文學家宣布哈勃太空望遠鏡發現迄今距離地球最遠的星系 GN-z11,其距離約為 320 億光年。

Mar 3: Astronomers announced the discovery of GN-z11 by the Hubble Space Telescope. At a distance of about 32 billion light-years, GN-z11 is the remotest galaxy yet discovered.

17 14.66
23

7月28日: 香港天文台推出「局部地區大雨報告」服務,當雨勢較為局部及未擴展至香港廣泛地區並達至需要發出紅色或黑色暴雨警告信號的指標時提供較詳細資訊。

Jul 28: The HK Observatory launched the 'Announcement of Localised Heavy Rain' service, providing more information on localised rainfall that may not necessitate a rainstorm warning signal.

16 13.79
24

9月30日: 颶風 Matthew 增強為自 2007 年以來北大西洋的首個五級颶風。雖然風暴其後減弱,但它為沿途地區帶來重大破壞,海地有至少 1000 人喪生。

Sep 30: Hurricane Matthew intensified into a category 5 hurricane, the first to attain such category in north Atlantic Ocean since 2007. Despite its subsequent weakening, the storm inflicted serious damage along its path. At least 1,000 people were killed at Haiti.

15 12.93
25

8月24日: 意大利中部發生 6.2 級淺層地震,造成 299 人死亡。該國於 10 月底再遭受地震災害,其中一次更達 6.5 級。

Aug 24: A 6.2-magnitude shallow earthquake struck central Italy, resulting in 299 deaths. Another series of earthquakes hit the country in late October, one of which reached magnitude 6.5.

14 12.07
26

4至5月: 數國受熱浪侵襲,馬來西亞及印度氣溫分別達 37 及 40 度,而印度拉賈斯坦邦更於 5 月 20 日錄得破紀錄的 51 度。極端天氣估計是與剛過去的厄爾尼諾現象有關。

Apr and May: Heat wave affected several countries, with Malaysia reaching 37 degrees and 40 degrees in India. A record-breaking temperature of 51 degrees was recorded in the Indian state of Rajasthan on May 20. The extreme weather is believed to be the effect of the recent El Nino episode.

13 11.21
27

3月9日: 一次日全食於當天發生,全食於印尼可見,而香港則出現日偏食。

Mar 9: A total solar eclipse occurred, with totality observable in Indonesia. It appeared as a partial eclipse in Hong Kong.

9 7.76
(=27)

4月12日: 英國宇宙學家霍金及俄羅斯富豪米爾納宣布發動「突破星擊」計畫,研究發射微型太空船到南門二,即太陽系外最接近地球的星系。

Apr 12: The 'Breakthrough Starshot' project, an effort to plan a trip to the closest star outside the solar system, Alpha Centauri, was announced by British cosmologist Stephen Hawking and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner.

9 7.76
(=27)

6月23日: 香港天文台延長提供實時天氣照片的時段,由先前的上午 5 時至下午 9 時擴展至全日 24 小時。

Jun 23: The HK Observatory started providing real-time weather photos round the clock, extending from the previous operating hours of 5 am to 9 pm every day.

9 7.76
(=27)

11月14日: 紐西蘭基督城以北發生 7.8 級地震,造成 2 人死亡,並為首都威靈頓帶來破壞。

Nov 14: A 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck north of Christchurch, New Zealand, resulting in 2 deaths and some damage in the capital city Wellington.

9 7.76
31

9月30日: 羅塞塔號探測器結束其 12 年研究67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希門克彗星的使命,於當天墜落於該彗星表面。

Sep 30: The Rosetta space probe ended its 12-year mission studying comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by colliding onto the comet's surface.

8 6.90
32

5月9日: 一次水星凌日於當天發生,於非、美、歐及亞洲大部分地區可見,但於香港未能看到。

May 9: A transit of Mercury occurred. It was visible from Africa, the Americas, Europe and most of Asia, but excluding Hong Kong.

4 3.45
(=32)

9月25日: 位於貴州的五百米口徑球面無線電望遠鏡成為世界上最大的單面口徑球面無線電望遠鏡。

Sep 25: China's Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope in Guizhou province became the world's largest filled-aperture radio telescope.

4 3.45
(=32)

12月17日: 巴布亞新畿內亞以東發生 7.9 級地震,並引發海嘯警報。此為 2016 年最猛烈的地震,但其破壞相對較微。

Dec 17: A 7.9-magnitude earthquake hit east of Papua New Guinea, triggering a tsunami warning. This was the strongest earthquake in 2016 by magnitude but the damage was relatively minor.

4 3.45
35

5至6月: 受持續降雨影響,歐洲多國及華南分別於 5 月底至 6 月初,以及 6 月底出現水浸。兩事件共造成超過 180 人死亡。

May and June: Persistent rainfall led to flooding in several European countries in late May to early June, and in southern China in late June. A total of 180 people lost their lives in the two events.

3 2.59
36

4月: 多國出現洪澇災害,其中包括月初於巴基斯坦及埃塞俄比亞的水浸分別造成 71 及 28 人死亡,以及美國休斯敦及鄰近地區於月中受廣泛降水影響。

Apr: Flooding hit various countries, including Pakistan and Ethiopia in early April resulting in 71 and 28 deaths, respectively, and in Houston, US and adjacent areas in mid-April.

2 1.72
(=36)

5月18日: 氣旋 Roanu 於斯里蘭卡及孟加拉觸發山泥傾瀉及水浸。斯里蘭卡於系統過後連日下雨,令水災災情加劇。

May 18: Cyclone Roanu triggered landslides and flooding in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In Sri Lanka, the flooding was excerbated by several days of heavy rain following the passage of the system.

2 1.72

Vote(s) for "Others" column: "其他" 欄所填寫之項目

Event3
事件
3
# of votes
票數

5月26至27日: 於南海的一道低壓槽發展為熱帶低氣壓,天文台發出一號戒備及三號強風信號,但改發一號信號後本港風勢不跌反升。

May 26-27: A low pressure trough in the South China Sea developed into a tropical depression, leading to the issuance of the #1 Standby and #3 Strong Wind Signals. However, local winds were still surging when the HK Observatory lowered the #3 Signal to #1.

2

7月19至21日: 黃淮地區受溫帶氣旋侵襲,多處出現水災,造成 184 人死亡,另 130 人失蹤。

Jul 19-21: An extratropical cyclone swept across northern China, over the region between the Huai and Yangtze rivers. It resulted in widespread flooding, with 184 deaths and another 130 missing.

1

8月下旬: 熱帶氣旋獅子山徘徊多時後發展為一股成熟的颱風,於 30 日橫掃日本東北地方,成為過百年來首個以颱風級別登陸該地的風暴。獅子山隨後西移登陸俄羅斯海參崴,其殘餘在北韓引發嚴重水災,導致過百人喪命。

Late Aug: After a long period of stagnation, tropical cyclone Lionrock developed into a mature typhoon and lashed Japan's Tohoku region. Lionrock became the first typhoon to make landfall there in over 100 years. Upon landfall, Lionrock continued westwards and approached Vladivostok; its remnants produced torrential rainfall in North Korea and killed more than 100 there.

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9月15日: 中國的天宮二號空間實驗室成功發射。其後,神州十一號載人飛船於 10 月亦成功發射,並與天宮二號對接。

Sep 15: China's Tiangong-2 space laboratory was successfully launched. The manned Shenzhou-11 spacecraft was launched in October and it later docked with Tiangong-2.

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12月27日: 熱帶氣旋洛坦靠近香港 800 公里範圍 (最終於約 840 公里外掠過),於 12 月底較為少見。

Dec 27: Tropical cyclone Nock-ten neared Hong Kong's 800-km radius (it eventually passed at a distance of around 840 km), a relatively rare occurrence in late December.

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12月: 本月香港天文台錄得平均氣溫 19.6 度,是有紀錄以來第三高。

Dec: The mean air temperature at the HK Observatory was 19.6 degrees this month, the third highest on record.

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Notes 備註 :

1Each person can vote once on up to 12 events. Valid votes in "Others" category have been included. 每人可投票一次,最多投選 12 項事件。投選 "其他" 一欄的有效票數已計算在內。
2Percentage of total voters. 佔總投票人數的百分比。
3Wordings may be changed to facilitate reading, but the meaning stays the same. Invalid statements, statements whose validity is unknown and those not interpretable are indicated with a question mark. 為方便閱讀,字眼稍作更改,但意義不變。不正確 / 準確度不明 / 未能理解的描述以問號標示。

Resources for the Top Three Events 首三名事件有關資源

Here we provide links to the resources related to the top three events in this election. 在這裡我們提供有關選舉中獲得首三名的事件之資料。

[Rank #1 第一位] Intense cold surge affected southern China; 3.1 degrees recorded at the HK Observatory | 華南遇強烈寒潮,香港天文台錄得 3.1 度低溫

 

[Rank #2 第二位] Black Rainstorm Warning and #8 Gale or Storm Signal in October | 十月發出黑色暴雨警告及八號烈風或暴風信號
[Rank #3 第三位] Amber Rainstorm Warning in January | 一月發出黃色暴雨警告

Finally, we would like to thank all voters for their participation, who together contributed to its success. See you next year!

最後,我們在此對所有投票人士致謝,令本選舉得以圓滿完成。明年再見!

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Wed Jan 29 2020 22:26:29 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Fri Jan 27 2017

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