2018 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉
"Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of 2018" Election

投票期 Voting period: 2019/01/01 00:00 至 to 2019/01/14 23:59

2018 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉 'Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of 2018' Election

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歡迎!請投選你心目中 2018 年度的天文、地理及氣象大事 (最少1項,最多13項):本選舉已於2019年1月14日23時59分結束。
Welcome! Please select at most 13 events that, in your opinion, are the most significant in 2018: The poll was closed on 2019/01/14 at 23:59.

1月份 :: January
1月初 / Early January: 北美東部受寒潮及暴風雪侵襲,多地於本年首數天錄得低溫,其中美國紐約市於元旦日午夜錄得氣溫攝氏 -12 度,為超過 100 年來最冷的新年。Cold snap and blizzards hit the eastern North America with many places registering freezing temperatures in the first few days of this year. The temperature of -12 degrees Celsius recorded at midnight January 1 at New York City, United States made it the coldest New Year in more than 100 years.
25日 / 25th: 由於核武及全球氣候變化威脅日漸增加,末日鐘被調快 30 秒至距離午夜只餘 2 分鐘,是自 1953 年來最接近午夜。As a result of increasing threats of nuclear weapons and global climate change, the Doomsday Clock was moved 30 seconds forward to two minutes before midnight, the closest setting since 1953.
2月份 :: February
1月底至2月初 / Late January to early February: 受強烈冬季季候風影響,香港天氣持續寒冷,天文台於 1 月 29 日至 2 月 6 日連續 9 天的低溫低於 10 度,是有紀錄以來第四長。期間 2 月 1 日錄得最低氣溫 6.8 度,是本年最低。Affected by a strong surge of winter monsoon, the weather remained cold in Hong Kong. The minimum temperature at the HK Observatory was below 10 degrees between January 29 and February 6, for 9 consecutive days. This was the fourth longest streak on record. The minimum temperature of 6.8 degrees recorded on February 1 was the lowest in 2018.
6日 / 6th: 台灣花蓮外海發生 6.4 級地震,引發多棟大樓倒塌,共造成 17 人死亡。2 月 4 日發生的 6.1 級前震香港有感。A magnitude 6.4 earthquake struck near Hualien, Taiwan. Several buildings collapsed and a total of 17 people died in the event. A foreshock of magnitude 6.1 on February 4 was felt in Hong Kong.
12日 / 12th: 熱帶氣旋 Gita 吹襲湯加,成為有史以來吹襲該地最猛烈的氣旋,期間兩人死亡,千餘房屋受損。Tropical cyclone Gita approached Tonga, becoming the most intense cyclone to hit the country since records began. Two people were killed and more than a thousand homes were damaged.
16日 / 16th: 墨西哥瓦哈卡州發生 7.2 級地震,一直升機前往視察災情時墜毀,造成地面 14 人死亡。A magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck Oaxaca, Mexico. A helicopter sent to the scene crashed, killing 14 on the ground.
25日 / 25th: 巴布亞新幾內亞發生 7.5 級地震,約 160 人罹難,其後兩周出現多次餘震,再造成數十人死亡。A magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck Papua New Guinea, killing 160. There were numerous aftershocks in the next two weeks and claimed another several dozens of lives.
2月底至3月初 / Late February to early March: 歐洲西部及北美東岸於 2 月底及 3 月初受暴風雪吹襲,英國氣象局首次對蘇格蘭發出紅色警報,而美國東部則多處出現停電。Blizzards affected western Europe and the east coast of North America in late February and early March. The Met Office of the United Kingdom issued the red alert for the first time in Scotland, while many places were left without power in eastern United States.
3月份 :: March
3月 / March: 香港天氣異常溫暖、晴朗及少雨,3 月總日照時數達 196.2 小時,是有紀錄以來 3 月份最高,潮濕有霧天氣較少出現。It was unusually warm and sunny in Hong Kong in March with a lower rainfall than normal. The total monthly duration of bright sunshine was 196.2 hours, the highest in March on record. Wet and foggy weather was also rarely seen during the month.
4月份 :: April
2日 / 2nd: 中國的天宮一號飛行器完成使命,於南太平洋上空重返地球大氣層燒毀。Chinese space module Tiangong-1 re-entered Earth and burnt up over the South Pacific Ocean as it completed its mission.
5月份 :: May
2至3日 / 2nd to 3rd: 印度北部受大型沙塵暴吹襲,於數邦造成超過 120 人死亡。A large-scale dust storm swept across northern India, leading to more than 120 deaths over several states.
3日 / 3rd: 美國夏威夷基拉韋厄火山首次噴發,而 5 月 4 日當地發生 6.9 級地震後火山活動持續達數月之久,累計數百房屋被毀。The Kilauea volcano in Hawaii, United States erupted. A magnitude 6.9 earthquake took place nearby on May 4, and volcanic activities persisted for several months. Hundreds of homes were destroyed as a result.
5月中下旬 / Mid to late May: 熱帶氣旋 Sagar 及 Mekunu 於 5 月 19 及 26 日登陸索馬里及阿曼,分別為有史以來登陸索馬里及阿拉伯半島最強的熱帶氣旋。Cyclones Sagar and Mekunu made landfall at Somalia and Oman on May 19 and 26, respectively. They became the strongest cyclones to make landfall at Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula in recorded history.
5月中下旬 / Mid to late May: 受高空反氣旋持續影響,香港 5 月下半月出現極端酷熱晴朗天氣,月平均氣溫 28.3 度為有史以來 5 月最高。5 月 17 日至 6 月 1 日連續 16 日出現高溫達 33 度的酷熱天氣,而 5 月的 16 天酷熱日數亦打破當月紀錄。期間天文台於 5 月 30 日錄得 35.4 度高溫,是有紀錄以來 5 月第二高,亦是本年最高溫度。雨量低令本港水塘存水量較低甚至乾涸。Due to the continued influence of an upper-level anticyclone, Hong Kong experienced an abnormally hot and sunny spell in the latter half of May. The mean monthly temperature of 28.3 degrees was the highest in May on record. It was very hot for 16 days between May 17 and June 1, with temperatures reaching 33 degrees every day. Very hot weather was observed on 16 days in May, breaking the monthly record. The maximum temperature of 35.4 degrees recorded on May 30 was the second highest in May, and was also the highest this year. The low rainfall also contributed to a drop in water level or even emptiness at local reservoirs.
6月份 :: June
3日 / 3rd: 危地馬拉的富埃戈火山爆發,造成超過 190 人死亡。Volcan de Fuego, a volcano in Guatemala, erupted, resulting in more than 190 deaths.
7日 / 7th: 熱帶風暴艾雲尼靠近廣東西部,天文台發出本年首個三號強風信號。艾雲尼為香港帶來大雨,紅色暴雨警告曾於 6 月 8 日生效,而 7 日黃昏長洲附近出現水龍捲。Tropical Storm Ewiniar moved towards western Guangdong, and the HK Observatory issued the first #3 Strong Wind Signal this year. Ewiniar brought torrential rain to Hong Kong; the Red Rainstorm Warning was in force on June 8, and a waterspout was spotted off Cheung Chau in the evening of June 7.
18日 / 18th: 日本大阪府發生 5.5 級地震,當區震感有紀錄以來首次達 6 弱水平,地震造成 5 人死亡,數百人受傷。A magnitude 5.5 earthquake struck the Osaka Prefecture in Japan. This was the first time an intensity of Lower 6 was recorded in the prefecture. The earthquake led to 5 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
7月份 :: July
17至23日 / 17th to 23rd: 熱帶風暴山神橫過南海,天文台於 7 月 17 日發出三號強風信號。山神登陸越南後數天轉回北部灣並趨向海南島,一號戒備信號於 7 月 23 日再度發出。山神為越南帶來暴雨,造成超過 30 人死亡。Tropical Storm Son-tinh crossed the South China Sea, prompting the HK Observatory to issue the #3 Strong Wind Signal on July 17. Several days after making landfall at Vietnam, Son-tinh re-emerged into the Gulf of Tonkin and moved towards Hainan Island. The #1 Standby Signal was issued again on July 23. Son-tinh brought heavy rain to Vietnam and claimed more than 30 lives there.
23日 / 23rd: 受持續乾燥天氣影響,英國及希臘分別於 6 及 7 月發生大規模山火,其中希臘於 7 月 23 日開始的山火共造成 99 人死亡。Prolonged period of dryness led to wildfires in the United Kingdom and Greece in June and July, respectively. The wildfires in Greece began on July 23 and eventually killed 99.
27至28日 / 27th to 28th: 21 世紀最長的一次月全食上演,全食時間達 1 小時 43 分鐘,當晚香港多處可見。而同日出現火星大衝,明亮的火星亦同時可見。The longest total lunar eclipse in the 21st century took place, with totality lasting 1 hour 43 minutes and was visible over many places in Hong Kong. The event coincided with the perihelic opposition of Mars, and a bright Mars was also visible.
7月 / July: 月內日本接連受極端天氣影響,月初中西部豪雨造成超過 220 人死亡,而月中至月底則出現酷熱天氣,其中熊谷市於 7 月 23 日錄得 41.1 度高溫破該國紀錄。7 月 29 日,颱風雲雀自東向西橫過日本,路徑罕見。Japan was hit by various extreme weather events during the month. Torrential rainfall in central and western Japan in early July led to more than 220 deaths. This was followed by extreme heat in the rest of the month, with a record-breaking temperature of 41.1 degrees recorded at Kumagaya on July 23. Meanwhile, Typhoon Jongdari crossed Japan from east to west on July 29, a rare tropical cyclone track for the country.
7至8月 / July to August: 熱帶氣旋安比、雲雀及溫比亞於一個月內先後於上海登陸,是有氣象紀錄以來首次,而本年之前、自 1949 年起僅曾有兩個熱帶氣旋直接登陸該地。Tropical cyclones Ampil, Jongdari and Rumbia made landfall at Shanghai within a month's time, the first such occurrence since records began. Prior to 2018, only two cyclones had made direct landfall at Shanghai since 1949.
8月份 :: August
5日 / 5th: 印尼龍目島發生 6.9 級地震,造成超過 560 人死亡。當地 7 月 29 日曾發生 6.4 級前震,亦造成多人傷亡。A magnitude 6.9 earthquake struck Lombok, Indonesia, killing more than 560. A foreshock of magnitude 6.4 on July 29 also resulted in casualties.
19日 / 19th: 斐濟對開海域發生 8.2 級地震,這是本年強度最高的地震,但並未造成破壞。A magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck the seas off Fiji. This was the strongest earthquake this year by magnitude, but no damage was reported.
8月上旬 / Early August: 印度南部喀拉拉邦受季候風影響連日下暴雨,共造成接近 500 人死亡。Heavy monsoon rains impacted the southern Indian state of Kerala, resulting in almost 500 deaths.
9至14日 / 9th to 14th: 熱帶風暴貝碧嘉於南海北部徘徊,一號戒備信號於 8 月 9 日至 14 日期間生效,是該信號歷來生效時間第二長。隨著貝碧嘉靠近,天文台於 8 月 14 日改發三號強風信號,但本港風勢較預期弱。Tropical Storm Bebinca lingered around northern South China Sea. The #1 Standby Signal was in force between August 9 and 14, the second-longest duration for the #1 signal. The HK Observatory issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal as Bebinca edged closer on August 14, but local winds were weaker than expected.
26至29日 / 26th to 29th: 受一個廣闊低壓區影響,香港於 8 月 26 至 29 日天氣不穩定,期間每天均需發出黃色暴雨警告,而紅色暴雨警告亦曾於 8 月 26 及 29 日發出。8 月 29 日早上汀九附近有水龍捲報告。Under the influence of a broad low pressure area, the weather in Hong Kong was unstable between August 26 and 29. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was issued on each of the four days, while the Red Rainstorm Warning was issued on August 26 and 29. A waterspout was spotted near Ting Kau in the morning of August 29.
9月份 :: September
4及6日 / 4th and 6th: 颱風飛燕於 9 月 4 日登陸日本中部,其風眼掠過關西國際機場,海水倒灌令機場受嚴重破壞並需完全停飛三日。風暴過後兩日,北海道於 9 月 6 日發生 6.6 級地震。Typhoon Jebi struck central Japan on September 4. Its eye passed near the Kansai International Airport, leading to severe flooding and damage. All flights were suspended for three days. A magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck Hokkaido on September 6, just two days after the typhoon had passed.
14日 / 14th: 颶風 Florence 登陸美國北卡羅萊納州,雖然登陸時風速只有一級颶風強度,但鄰近數州均受其影響,共造成 30 人死亡,經濟損失達 180 億美元。Hurricane Florence made landfall in North Carolina, United States. Although making landfall as a category 1 hurricane, several adjacent states were also affected by the storm. A total of 30 lives were lost and economic damage amounted to 18 billion US dollars.
16日 / 16th: 強颱風山竹吹襲珠江口,天文台發出十號颶風信號,香港經歷 35 年以來最嚴重的風災。此前山竹以超強颱風姿態橫過西北太平洋,一度預測將以此強度於香港近距離登陸。受其下沉氣流影響,9 月 15 日天文台錄得 35.1 度高溫,為 9 月第二高。山竹吹襲期間部分地區出現破紀錄高度的風暴潮,大量樹木倒塌令 9 月 17 日本港交通陷於癱瘓。Severe Typhoon Mangkhut impacted the Pearl River Estuary, necessitating the #10 Hurricane Signal and inflicting the most serious damage in Hong Kong in 35 years. Prior to its impact, Mangkhut crossed the northwest Pacific as a super typhoon and it was once predicted to make landfall near Hong Kong at this intensity. Affected by its subsidence, the maximum temperature of 35.1 degrees recorded at the HK Observatory on September 15 was the second highest on the monthly record. During Mangkhut's approach, several locations observed record-breaking storm surge levels. The large amount of collapsed trees brought local traffic to a standstill on September 17.
28日 / 28th: 印尼蘇拉威西島發生 7.5 級地震並引發海嘯,超過 2200 人喪生,為本年死亡人數最多的地震災害。A magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. It triggered a tsunami and the death toll exceeded 2200. This was the deadliest earthquake this year.
10月份 :: October
10及13日 / 10th and 13th: 颶風 Michael 於 10 月 10 日以四級颶風強度登陸美國佛羅里達州西部,以氣壓計為有紀錄以來登陸美國大陸的熱帶氣旋中第三強。另外,颶風 Leslie 於 10 月 13 日轉化為溫帶氣旋並登陸葡萄牙。Hurricane Michael impacted the United States as a category 4 cyclone. At the time of its landfall in the Florida Panhandle on October 10, it was the third-most intense hurricane to make landfall in the contiguous United States in terms of pressure. Meanwhile, Hurricane Leslie transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 13 and made landfall in Portugal.
11日 / 11th: 俄羅斯太空船聯盟 MS-10 發射數分鐘後出現故障,任務中止,兩名太空人成功逃生並安全返回地面。Russian spaceship Soyuz MS-10's mission was aborted several minutes after liftoff due to a failure. The two crew members on board made a successful emergency landing.
29日 / 29th: 美國太空總署的帕克太陽探測器抵達距離太陽表面 4,273 萬公里處,成為有史以來最接近太陽的人造物體。NASA's Parker Solar Probe became the closest man-made object to the Sun as it came to within 42.73 million kilometres of the Sun's surface.
10月 / October: 歐洲多國於 10 月受嚴重水浸影響,意大利、法國及西班牙受災嚴重,其中意大利有 36 人因此喪命。Heavy floods affected several European countries in October, with Italy, France and Spain being the hardest hit. 36 lives were lost in Italy.
10月下旬至11月初 / Late October to early November: 颱風玉兔於 10 月 25 日以相當於五級超級颱風的強度吹襲塞班島及天寧島,為當地有史以來最強侵襲風暴。玉兔其後於 10 月 30 日橫過菲律賓呂宋島,並進入南海,香港天文台於 11 月 1 日發出三號強風信號,是該信號 25 年來首次於 11 月發出。Typhoon Yutu impacted Saipan and Tinian islands on October 25 as a category-5-equivalent cyclone, the strongest on local record. Yutu crossed Luzon, Philippines on October 30 and entered the South China Sea. The HK Observatory issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal on November 1, the first November issuance of this signal in 25 years.
11月份 :: November
11月 / November: 持續乾旱天氣令美國加州出現大規模山火,其中 11 月 8 日開始的營溪大火成為該州有紀錄以來最為致命及具破壞性的一次,共造成 85 人死亡,超過 18,000 間建築物被毀。Prolonged drought led to large-scale wildfires in California, United States. Beginning on November 8, the Camp Fire became the deadliest and most destructive wildfire in California history. More than 85 people died and 18,000 structures were destroyed.
26日 / 26th: 台灣海峽發生 5.9 級地震,香港天文台接獲數千市民有感地震報告,是次地震於本港的烈度為 IV (四) 度。A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck the Taiwan Strait. The HK Observatory received several thousand reports of felt tremor. The intensity of the earthquake was rated as level IV in Hong Kong.
12月份 :: December
15日 / 15th: 於波蘭舉行的聯合國氣候變化大會結束,各國就落實巴黎協議的細節達成共識,目標為限制全球平均氣溫升幅至工業革命前水平以上攝氏兩度之內。The United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Poland concluded. Participating countries reached an agreement in implementing the Paris Agreement which aimed to limit the rise in global average temperatures to within 2 degrees Celsius of pre-industrial levels.
22日 / 22nd: 印尼喀拉喀托火山爆發,並觸發海嘯席捲巽他海峽,造成最少 400 人死亡。The eruption of the Krakatoa volcano in Indonesia triggered a tsunami that swept across the Sunda Strait, leading to at least 400 deaths.
其他 :: Others
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參與網站 (以英文字母排序):
Participating websites (in alphabetical order):

連結 Link香港討論區氣象版 Discuss.com.hk - Meteorology board
香港天氣觀測站 Hong Kong Weather Watch香港天氣觀測站 Hong Kong Weather Watch
香港惡劣天氣訊息站 Hong Kong Wild Weather and Storm Infomation Centre香港惡劣天氣訊息站 Hong Kong Wild Weather and Storm Infomation Centre
澳門熱帶氣旋網 Macau Typhoon Web澳門熱帶氣旋網 Macau Typhoon Web
台灣颱風論壇 Taiwan Typhoon BBS台灣颱風論壇 Taiwan Typhoon BBS

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