1月份 :: January 1日 / 1st: 接續 2018 年底的強烈東北季候風影響，1 月 1 日香港天文台的低溫為 11.4 度，是本年的最低紀錄。這是今年唯一的寒冷日 (氣溫 12 度或以下)，亦打破最高年最低氣溫紀錄。Following the strong surge of northeast monsoon near the end of 2018, the HK Observatory recorded a minimum temperature of 11.4 degrees on January 1, the lowest temperature this year. It was the only cold day in 2019 (air temperature 12 degrees or lower), and this temperature was the highest annual minimum on record. 1日 / 1st: 美國太空船新視野號近距離飛掠小行星 486958 號「天涯海角」進行探測，是有史以來太空船到訪的最遠天體。The US space probe New Horizons maneuvered for a flyby of the minor planet 486958 Arrokoth, which was the farthest object visited by a spacecraft. 3日 / 3rd: 中國的嫦娥四號探測車登陸月球，實現史上首次於月球背面軟著陸。The Chinese rover Chang'e 4 achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon in history. 4日 / 4th: 跨年熱帶風暴帕布登陸泰國，造成 8 人死亡。聯合颱風警報中心對帕布給予編號為 2018 年的 36W，而日本氣象廳則為 2019 年的 1901。Tropical Storm Pabuk, whose existence spanned two calendar years, made landfall in Thailand and resulted in 8 deaths there. Pabuk was given the storm number 36W (in 2018) by the JTWC, and 1901 (in 2019) by the JMA. 1月中至2月初 / Mid-January to early February: 北半球多地受寒潮侵襲，1 月中歐洲多處發生雪崩，至月底極地渦旋南下至北美洲，美國芝加哥氣溫低見 -31 度。2月初，日本北海道受寒潮影響，廣泛地區氣溫下降至 -20 度，陸別町更下降至 -31.8 度。Cold waves struck various parts of the northern hemisphere. Avalanches occurred in various European countries in mid-January. In late January, the polar vortex dipped south into North America; temperatures in Chicago reached -31 degrees. Meanwhile, the cold wave in Hokkaido in early February brought most places to -20 degrees, with temperatures at Rikubetsu reaching as low as -31.8 degrees. 2月份 :: February 13日 / 13th: 由於未能與已失去聯絡 8 個月的機會號火星探測車聯繫，美國太空總署正式宣佈該探測車任務結束。The NASA officially declared the mission of the Opportunity Mars rover complete, after losing contact with the rover for 8 months. 19日 / 19th: 受低壓槽影響，本港有雷雨，天文台發出黃色暴雨警告，是該信號首次於 2 月發出，亦是有紀錄以來第二最早發出的黃雨警告。Affected by a trough of low pressure, thundery showers in Hong Kong prompted the Observatory to issue the Amber Rainstorm Warning. It was the first time that this signal was issued in February, and was the second earliest such signal on record. 25日 / 25th: 於西北太平洋的颱風蝴蝶增強為五級超級颱風，是有紀錄以來 2 月份北半球首個達此強度的熱帶氣旋。Typhoon Wutip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean intensified into a category 5 super typhoon, becoming the first storm in the northern hemisphere to do so in February since records began. 2月 / February: 由於華南冬季季候風比正常弱，香港異常溫暖，2018 年 12 月至 2019 年 2 月冬季為有紀錄以來最暖，平均氣溫達 19.1 度，較正常高 2.1 度。其中 2 月 6 至 8 日天文台錄得最高氣溫分別為 24.9、25.8 及 25.1 度，為有紀錄以來最暖的農曆年初二、初三及初四。As the winter monsoon affecting southern China was weaker than usual, it was exceptionally warm in Hong Kong. The winter between December 2018 and February 2019 was the warmest on record, with an average air temperature of 19.1 degrees, 2.1 degrees above normal. Maximum temperatures of 24.9, 25.8 and 25.1 degrees were recorded on February 6, 7 and 8 respectively, making them the warmest second, third and fourth days of the lunar new year. 3月份 :: March 3日 / 3rd: 美國東南部接連受 41 個龍捲風吹襲，其中一個達 EF4 強度的龍捲風於阿拉巴馬及鄰近州份造成 23 人死亡，103 人受傷。A total of 41 tornados struck southeastern US. One of the tornados, EF4 in strength, killed 23 and injured 103 in Alabama and nearby states. 3月中 / Mid-March: 氣旋 Idai 於非洲東南部徘徊多時，最後登陸莫桑比克。由於 Idai 移速較慢，它在馬達加斯加、馬拉維、莫桑比克及津巴布韋等國造成嚴重氾濫，共造成超過 1,300 人死亡，受災人數約 3 百萬，是其中一個影響非洲及南半球最嚴重的熱帶氣旋。After periods of stagnation in southeastern Africa, Cyclone Idai made landfall in Mozambique. The storm inflicted severe flooding in Madagascar, Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe due to its slow movement, resulting in at least 1,300 deaths. More than 3 million people were affected by the storm. This led to Idai being one of the most catastrophic tropical cyclones in Africa and the southern hemisphere. 24日 / 24th: 氣旋 Iba 於巴西東南部對開海域增強為熱帶風暴，是自 2010 年來首個於南大西洋達到此強度的熱帶氣旋。Cyclone Iba intensified into a tropical storm off the southeastern coast of Brazil. It was the first cyclone in the South Atlantic Ocean to reach this strength since 2010. 31日 / 31st: 尼泊爾南部受強烈雷暴侵襲，其後科學家以衛星雲圖引證曾形成龍捲風，這是當地首個被確認的龍捲風吹襲事件。此強對流天氣災害奪去至少 28 人性命。Severe thunderstorms struck southern Nepal. Scientists later verified that a tornado was involved with the help of satellite imagery. This was the first confirmed case of a tornado in Nepal. The event claimed at least 28 lives. 4月份 :: April 10日 / 10th: 事件視界望遠鏡團隊發佈於 M87 星系中的黑洞視界照片，這是史上第一次拍到黑洞周圍的模樣。Scientists at the Event Horizon Telescope project released the first ever photograph of the event horizon of a black hole, that at the centre of the M87 galaxy. 18至20日 / 18th to 20th: 活躍偏南氣流影響香港，4 月 18 至 20 日天氣不穩定，有大驟雨及狂風雷暴，三天均需發出黃色暴雨警告，20 日更曾發出紅雨警告。18 日晚間澳門及香港以南近海有超級胞形成並致漁船翻沉，而 20 日京士柏錄得陣風達每小時 117 公里，是該站在非熱帶氣旋影響時之最高陣風紀錄。An active southerly airstream brought unstable weather to Hong Kong, with heavy showers and squally thunderstorms. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was issued on each of the three days between April 18 and 20, and the Red Rainstorm Warning was issued on April 20. A supercell formed in the seas immediately south of Macau and Hong Kong on April 18, causing a fishing vessel to founder. A gust of 117 km/h was recorded at King's Park on April 20. It was the strongest gust there on record in the absence of tropical cyclones. 25日 / 25th: 氣旋 Kenneth 以相等於四級颶風強度登陸莫桑比克，是有紀錄以來登陸該地最猛烈的熱帶氣旋。莫桑比克受災嚴重，共約 45 人死亡。Cyclone Kenneth made landfall at Mozambique with an intensity equivalent to that of a category 4 hurricane. This was the strongest cyclone to make landfall there since records began, and led to 45 deaths in the country. 5月份 :: May 3日 / 3rd: 氣旋 Fani 以相等於四級颶風強度登陸印度奧里薩邦，是當地自 1999 年以來的最強風暴。Fani 其後橫過印度及孟加拉，共造成 89 人死亡，經濟損失達 81 億美元。Cyclone Fani made landfall in the Indian state of Odisha with an intensity equivalent to that of a category 4 hurricane, the strongest since 1999. Fani later traversed India and Bangladesh, killing 89 and inflicting damages of 8.1 million US dollars. 26日 / 26th: 秘魯北部發生 8.0 級地震，造成 2 人死亡。這是今年最猛烈的地震。A magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck northern Peru, the strongest this year. Two people were killed. 6月份 :: June 17日 / 17th: 四川省宜賓市發生 5.8 級地震，造成 13 人死亡，超過 200 人受傷。A magnitude 5.8 earthquake struck Yibin in Sichuan province, killing 13 and injuring more than 200. 6至7月 / June to July: 歐洲於 6 月及 7 月相繼受熱浪侵襲，其中於 6 月底法國南部首次錄得超過 45 度，而 7 月下旬德國、比利時、荷蘭及英國等均錄得有史以來最高氣溫。Series of heat waves struck Europe in June and July. In late June, temperatures in southern France reached 45 degrees for the first time in recorded history. In the latter parts of July, record temperatures were registered in countries such as Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. 7月份 :: July 2日 / 2nd: 南半球出現一次日全食，該日食尾段可於智利及阿根廷等南美洲國家見到。A total solar eclipse occurred in the southern hemisphere. Towards the end of this eclipse, it was visible in South American countries like Chile and Argentina. 6日 / 6th: 美國加州南部發生 7.1 級地震，是當地自 1999 年以來最猛烈的一次。此前亦有一次前震於 7 月 4 日發生，強度達 6.4 級。A magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck southern California, US, the strongest since 1999. A foreshock of magnitude 6.4 occurred on July 4. 7月中 / Mid-July: 受季候風影響，尼泊爾、印度及孟加拉等國家連日滂沱大雨並引發水浸及山泥傾瀉，造成超過 89 人死亡。Monsoonal downpours over several days in Nepal, India and Bangladesh claimed at least 89 lives. 17日 / 17th: 一次月偏食發生，當日凌晨本港可見，至清晨月落時仍在進行中。A partial lunar eclipse was visible in Hong Kong in the small hours. The moon was still eclipsed when it set in the morning. 31日 / 31st: 熱帶風暴韋帕橫過南海北部，香港天文台於下午發出八號烈風或暴風信號，是本年唯一一次。當日香港普遍吹強風至烈風，雨量達 100 至 200 毫米。韋帕於香港約 310 公里外掠過，是數十年來需要發出八號信號的熱帶風暴中最遠的一個。As Tropical Storm Wipha traversed the northern South China Sea, the HK Observatory issued the only #8 Gale or Storm Signal this year. Strong to gale force winds were recorded in Hong Kong that day, with rainfall reaching 100 to 200 mm over the territory. At its closest point of approach, Wipha was about 310 km from Hong Kong; it was the tropical storm farthest away from Hong Kong to necessitate the #8 Signal in decades. 7月 / July: 日本受極端天氣影響，月初九州連場大雨，宮崎及鹿兒島縣共超過 1 百萬人需要撤離。至月底，該國受熱浪侵襲，造成數十人死亡。Extreme weather struck Japan, beginning with torrential rain in early July in Kyushu, leading to the evacuation of more than 1 million people in the prefectures of Miyazaki and Kagoshima. Meanwhile, a heat wave swept across the country in late July, killing several dozen people. 8月份 :: August 10日 / 10th: 颱風利奇馬登陸浙江省，其後沿華東北上並構成廣泛破壞。風暴於中國造成 56 人死亡，損失約 93 億美元。此前，華南受利奇馬的相關下沉氣流影響，香港天文台於 8 月 9 日錄得氣溫 35.1 度，為全年最高。Typhoon Lekima made landfall in Zhejiang. It later crossed eastern China and inflicted widespread damage. The storm killed 56 in mainland China, and losses amounted to 9.3 billion US dollars. Prior to its landfall, the subsidence air associated with Lekima affected southern China. The air temperature at the HK Observatory reached 35.1 degrees on August 9, the highest this year. 24至26日 / 24th to 26th: 強烈熱帶風暴白鹿於福建省沿海登陸，隨後深入廣東省內陸，香港天文台於 8 月 24 日發出一號戒備信號。白鹿為本港帶來大驟雨，8 月 25 及 26 日多區錄得每日超過 100 毫米雨量。Severe Tropical Storm Bailu made landfall in coastal Fujian province and then crossed northern Guangdong. The HK Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal on August 24. Bailu brought heavy showers to Hong Kong, with more than 100 mm of rain falling in many places each on August 25 and 26. 29日 / 29th: 受熱帶風暴楊柳前沿的強對流雲帶影響，海南島遭受龍捲風吹襲，共有 8 人死亡，2 人受傷。楊柳橫過南海期間，香港天文台於 8 月 28 日發出一號戒備信號。Affected by the strong convective cloud bands ahead of Tropical Storm Podul, a tornado formed and struck Hainan Island, causing 8 deaths and 2 injuries. The HK Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal in Hong Kong on August 28, during Podul's passage across the South China Sea. 9月份 :: September 1日 / 1st: 熱帶低氣壓劍魚橫過南海北部，香港天文台發出三號強風信號。劍魚隨後登陸越南中部，天文台取消一號戒備信號前風暴一度距港達 1,000 公里。劍魚最終重回海上，其殘餘東移至南海東北部。Tropical Depression Kajiki traversed northern South China Sea, with the HK Observatory issuing the #3 Strong Wind Signal. Kajiki later made landfall in central Vietnam; the storm was once 1,000 km from Hong Kong before the cancellation of the #1 Standby Signal. Kajiki then re-entered seas and its remnants eventually moved east towards northeastern South China Sea. 1日 / 1st: 颶風 Dorian 以五級颶風強度登陸巴哈馬，是有紀錄以來登陸該地最猛烈的颶風，並造成廣泛破壞，最少 70 人死亡，經濟損失估計達 34 億美元。Dorian 其後於到達美國東岸前轉向。Hurricane Dorian made landfall in the Bahamas as a category 5 hurricane, the strongest the country had experienced. It caused widespread damage there and killed at least 70, with losses amounting to an estimated 3.4 billion US dollars. 9月9日及10月12日 / September 9th and October 12th: 颱風法茜及海貝思於約一個月時間內先後登陸日本關東地區並掠過首都圈一帶。由於兩氣旋登陸強度高，它們均打破了當地部分風速紀錄。海貝思於日本造成廣泛水浸，箱根的 922.5 毫米日雨量打破全國紀錄；風暴造成達 150 億美元經濟損失，經通脹調整後僅次於 1991 年的颱風梅莉。In the space of about a month, Typhoons Faxai and Hagibis made landfall in the Kanto region of Japan and struck the Greater Tokyo Area. Both storms broke wind speed records due to their high landfalling intensities. Hagibis caused widespread flooding; the daily rainfall of 922.5 mm at Hakone broke nationwide records. The total damages from Hagibis amounted to 15 billion US dollars, and the storm was the second costliest since Typhoon Mireille in 1991 after adjusting for inflation. 13日 / 13th: 隨著高空反氣旋增強，香港天文台錄得 33.0 度高溫，是有紀錄以來最熱的中秋節。Due to a strengthening anticyclone, a maximum temperature of 33.0 degrees was recorded at the HK Observatory. This marked the hottest mid-autumn festival on record. 20日 / 20th: 超過 100 個國家共數百萬人響應號召罷工罷課，要求各國採取行動應對氣候變化。這是繼 3 月及 5 月後的第三次抗議行動。Millions of people in more than 100 countries participated in a global strike to demand actions be taken to address climate change. This was the third such event, following one in March and another in May. 24及26日 / 24th and 26th: 巴基斯坦克什米爾地區及印尼東部分別於 9 月 24 及 26 日發生 5.6 及 6.5 級地震，並分別造成 40 及 41 人死亡。A magnitude 5.6 earthquake struck the Kashmir region in Pakistan on September 24, and another of magnitude 6.5 struck eastern Indonesia two days later. The death tolls were 40 and 41, respectively. 10月份 :: October 7日 / 7th: 美國天文學家宣佈於土星附近新發現 20 個衛星，使其總數達 82 個，超越木星已知的 79 個。US astronomers announced the discovery of 20 new moons around Saturn, making a total of 82. This surpassed Jupiter's known 79 moons. 11月份 :: November 11日 / 11th: 一次水星凌日發生，並可於美洲、非洲、歐洲及中東地區見到。這是繼 2016 年的另一次水星凌日，下一次將於 2032 年發生。A transit of Mercury occurred and was visible in the Americas, Africa, Europe and the Middle East. The previous transit occurred in 2016, while the next one will be in 2032. 12日 / 12th: 意大利威尼斯出現自 1966 年來最嚴重的漲潮，潮水高度達 187 厘米，城市多處出現水浸。The Italian city of Venice experienced an exceptionally high tide of 187 cm, the highest since 1966. Much of the city was inundated as a result. 26日 / 26th: 阿爾巴尼亞西北部發生 6.4 級地震，造成 52 人死亡，近 3,000 人受傷，是當地 40 年來最猛烈的地震。A magnitude 6.4 earthquake struck northwestern Albania, killing 52 and injuring around 3,000. This was the strongest earthquake in the country in 40 years. 12月份 :: December 5日 / 5th: 長洲附近於下午發生一次 1.4 級地震，香港天文台接獲超過 10 名市民報告有感，估計是次地震於本港的烈度為修訂麥加利地震烈度表的第 III 度。對上一次於香港境內的地震於 2014 年發生。A magnitude 1.4 earthquake occurred near Cheung Chau in the afternoon. The HK Observatory received over 10 reports of felt tremor, and estimated that the local intensity of this earthquake was III on the Modified Mercalli Scale. The last earthquake within Hong Kong occurred in 2014. 9日 / 9th: 新西蘭懷特島火山爆發，當時有數十名遊客於島上，最終有 16 人死亡，2 人失蹤。The volcano on Whakaari/White Island in New Zealand erupted while several dozens of tourists were still on the island. 16 people were killed and 2 went missing. 17日 / 17th: 澳洲受熱浪侵襲，當日全國平均氣溫達 40.9 度，是有紀錄以來最高，而高溫乾燥天氣亦加劇當地山火火勢。The average nationwide temperature in Australia surged to 40.9 degrees amidst a heat wave, the highest on record. The extreme heat and dry weather also exacerbated the wildfires raging across the country. 24及25日 / 24th and 25th: 颱風巴蓬吹襲菲律賓，於中部多省造成嚴重破壞，至少 28 人死亡，12 人失蹤。Typhoon Phanfone hit the Philippines. Many provinces in the central part of the country suffered severe damage. At least 28 people were killed and 12 went missing. 26日 / 26th: 東半球出現一次日環食，當天下午香港亦可見偏食，約三分一太陽圓盤面積被月球食去。An annular solar eclipse occurred in the eastern hemisphere. A partial eclipse was visible in Hong Kong that afternoon, with around 1/3 of the area of the solar disk obscured by the moon. 其他 :: Others 其他 (請註明。你不需要填寫全部三個空格；請留空未用盡的格子。注意這裡每一個已填寫的空格將分別計進總數內，例如若你在此填寫2個空格，你將只可以剔選其餘13件事件) :: Others (Please specify. You don't need to fill in all three text boxes; just leave unanswered cells blank. Note that filled boxes here are counted individually towards the total number of events selected, e.g. if you fill in 2 blanks here, you can choose only 13 more events from the list.) 1. 2. 3.