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2020 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉


The Poll 關於是次選舉

This is the thirteenth annual "Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of the Year" election held by Hong Kong Weather Watch (HKWW). 39 astronomical, geographic and meteorological events during 2020 were selected and voters could cast their votes on up to 13 (i.e. one-third) that, in their opinion, were the most significant. Apart from the selected events, voters could also make use of the "Others" column to suggest events that were not on the list.

In addition to HKWW, six other meteorological websites also participated in the election by including a link to the voting page in their sites. They include (in alphabetical order):

We would like to thank the above websites for their support in this event, and HKSON for creating the banner.

這是香港天氣觀測站第 13 年舉辦年度天文、地理及氣象大事選舉。我們於 2020 年發生的天文、地理及氣象事件中挑選出 39 件大事以供投選,而投票人士最多可選出 13 項 (即三份之一) 他們認為該年裡最重要的事件。除了已挑選事件外,投票者亦可利用 "其他" 一欄來投選不在表中的事件。除本站外,還有六個與氣象相關的網站參與本選舉,它們均在站內放進投票頁的超連結。該六個網站分別為 (以英文字母排序) :

本站在此對上述參與網站致以謝意,亦感謝 HKSON 製作是次選舉所用的橫幅。

Voting Period 投票期

The voting period for this year (2020)'s election lasted for 14 days; it commenced at 00:00 HKT on January 1, 2021 and concluded at 23:59 HKT on January 14, 2021.

2020 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉的投票期由 2021 年 1 月 1 日 香港時間 00:00 至 2021 年 1 月 14 日 香港時間 23:59,為期 14 天。

Available Events in This Year's Poll 本年度供投選的事件

Please visit here for the events in chronological order.

請按這裡以瀏覽本年度的事件 (按時間先後排序)。

Results of the Election 選舉結果

In this year's election, no voter made a response in the "Others" column. 在本次選舉中,"其他" 一欄未被任何投票人士選用。

Number of voters 投票人數 : 141
Total number of events selected1 總事件選擇數1: 1,402
Average number of events selected per person 人均事件選擇數 : 9.94

In the table below, events are listed in chronological order should ties occur. 在下表中,得票名次相同的事件以發生時間順序排列。

The 39 selected events listed in the voting page 投票頁顯示之 39 件事件 [Click here for bar chart (Chinese only) 按此顯示棒形圖]

With 111 or 78.72% of the votes, the most significant event in 2020 was the issuance of the #9 Signal in Hong Kong (and #10 Signal in Macau) as Typhoon Higos approached the Pearl River Estuary. The cold surge at the end of the year came next, with 89 or 63.12% of the votes. Another tropical cyclone event, the #8 Signal associated with Tropical Storm Nangka, received 86 or 60.99% of the votes, and ranked third in the election.

2020 年最受觸目的事件是颱風海高斯靠近珠江口並分別令香港及澳門發出九號及十號信號,共獲得 111 票 (78.72%)。第二位為年末的寒潮,獲得 89 票 (63.12%);而第三位則是熱帶風暴浪卡令本港發出八號信號,得到 86 票 (60.99%)。

Rank
名次
Event
事件
# of votes
票數
Percentage2
百分比2
1

8月19日: 熱帶氣旋海高斯橫過南海北部,於登陸珠海前增強為颱風並吹襲珠江口,香港天文台於凌晨發出九號烈風或暴風風力增強信號,而澳門更一度發出十號風球,三條大橋均錄得持續颶風風速。

Aug 19: Tropical cyclone Higos traversed northern South China Sea. It intensified into a typhoon and struck the Pearl River Estuary before making landfall in Zhuhai. The HK Observatory issued the #9 Increasing Gale or Storm Signal in the small hours, while the #10 Hurricane Signal was briefly in force at Macau. All three major bridges there recorded sustained hurricane force winds.

111 78.72
2

12月31日: 一股強烈寒潮影響華南,香港天文台氣溫下降至全年最低的 8.1 度,是自 2018 年 2 月以來氣溫首次跌穿 10 度,而凌晨大帽山溫度曾下降至冰點以下。

Dec 31: A strong cold surge affected southern China. The mercury at the HK Observatory dipped to 8.1 degrees, the lowest this year. This was also the first time that the temperature fell to a single digit since February 2018. The temperature at Tai Mo Shan was below the freezing point in the small hours.

89 63.12
3

10月13日: 熱帶氣旋浪卡橫過南海,雖然距港超過 400 公里,但由於有東北季候風疊加影響,天文台發出八號烈風或暴風信號,該信號於當天整段日間時間生效。

Oct 13: Tropical cyclone Nangka crossed the South China Sea. Although it maintained a distance of over 400 km from Hong Kong, the HK Observatory issued the #8 Gale or Storm Signal due to the combined effects of the storm and the northeast monsoon. The #8 Signal remained in force throughout daytime.

86 60.99
4

11月1日: 熱帶氣旋天鵝以相當於五級超級颱風的巔峰強度登陸菲律賓東部,聯合颱風警報中心估計其強度達 170 節,與 2013 年熱帶氣旋海燕看齊。天鵝於菲律賓造成嚴重破壞,亦加劇越南的水災。

Nov 1: Tropical cyclone Goni made landfall in eastern Philippines as a category-5 equivalent super typhoon. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center estimated its wind speed as 170 knots, tying with tropical cyclone Haiyan in 2013. Goni inflicted severe damage in the Philippines and exacerbated the floods in Vietnam.

83 58.87
5

全年: 香港多個月份氣溫較正常高,其中冬季 (2019 年 12 月至 2020 年 2 月) 的平均高溫 21.5 度,夏季 (6 至 8 月) 的平均高溫 32.6 度、平均氣溫 29.6 度及平均低溫 27.7 度,以及秋季 (9 至 11 月) 的平均高溫 26.4 度均為歷來最高。此外,由於副熱帶高壓脊長期盤據華南,7 月成為有紀錄以來最熱的月份,該月平均溫度為 30.2 度。全年酷熱 (高溫達 33 度) 及熱夜 (低溫達 28 度) 日數分別為 47 及 50 天,均打破紀錄。

Whole year: Temperatures in various months were warmer than usual in Hong Kong. The mean maximum temperature of 21.5 degrees in winter (Dec 2019 to Feb 2020), mean max/average/min temperatures of 32.6/29.6/27.7 degrees in summer (Jun to Aug), mean maximum temperature of 26.4 degrees in autumn (Sep to Nov) were all the highest on record. In addition, due to the dominance of the subtropical ridge in southern China, July became the hottest month on record with a mean temperature of 30.2 degrees. There were 47 very hot days (max temperature reaching 33 degrees) and 50 hot nights (min temperature reaching 28 degrees) in the year, breaking their respective records.

81 57.45
6

6月6至8日: 受低壓槽影響,香港連日天氣不穩定,有大雨及雷暴,多區三天共錄得 250 毫米雨量。天文台於 6 月 6 日發出三年來首個黑色暴雨警告,而 6 月 8 日機場附近出現水龍捲。

Jun 6 to 8: Affected by a trough of low pressure, the weather in Hong Kong was unstable with heavy rain and thunderstorms. More than 250 mm of rainfall was recorded in many places over the three days. The HK Observatory issued the first Black Rainstorm Warning in three years on June 6. A waterspout was spotted near the airport on June 8.
79 56.03
7

9月底: 本港 9 月底天氣不穩定,其中 9 月 25 日機場有龍捲風報告,而 30 日晚上的大雨令天文台發出本年第二個黑色暴雨警告。

Late Sep: The weather in Hong Kong was unstable towards the end of September. A tornado was spotted at the airport on September 25, while the heavy rain in the night of September 30 necessitated the second Black Rainstorm Warning this year.
77 54.61
8

6月21日: 非洲東部、華南及台灣等地出現日環食。由於香港頗為接近環食帶,當天下午可見食分達 0.89 的日偏食,至 2070 年前亦不會再有食分如此大的日食重臨。日食期間天文台氣溫下跌約 2 度,食甚時紫外線指數曾降至 0.4。

Jun 21: An annular solar eclipse was visible in areas such as eastern Africa, southern China and Taiwan. As Hong Kong was situated quite close to the path of annularity, a partial eclipse of magnitude 0.89 could be observed in the afternoon. Another eclipse with such a large magnitude would not be visible locally until 2070. The HK Observatory recorded a 2-degree drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the ultraviolet index dropped to 0.4 at maximum eclipse.
73 51.77
9

7月: 由於副熱帶高壓脊持續盤據西北太平洋,該區整月未有熱帶氣旋被命名,為史上首次。

Jul: Due to the persistent dominance of the subtropical ridge over the northwest Pacific, there was no named tropical cyclone in the basin during the whole month. This was the first such occurrence in history.
72 51.06
10

7月31日: 位於南海的季風低壓增強為熱帶低氣壓,天文台發出三號強風信號,取代當時正在生效的強烈季候風信號,是自 1993 年以來首次。該低壓其後增強為熱帶風暴森拉克並趨向海南南部及越南北部。

Jul 31: A monsoon depression intensified into a tropical depression in the South China Sea. The HK Observatory replaced the Strong Monsoon Signal then in force by the #3 Strong Wind Signal, the first such transition since 1993. The depression later intensified into tropical storm Sinlaku and moved towards southern Hainan and northern Vietnam.
71 50.35
11

1月5日: 大嶼山以南的珠海市香洲區海域發生 3.4 級地震,天文台接獲超過 1,200 名市民報告有感,於本地的烈度為修訂麥加利地震烈度表的第 IV 度。

Jan 5: A magnitude 3.4 earthquake occurred in the Xiangzhou District of Zhuhai city, just south of Lantau Island. The HK Observatory received more than 1,200 reports of felt tremor; the local intensity was IV on the Modified Mercalli scale.
58 41.13
12

6至7月: 梅雨鋒自 6 月長期徘徊長江流域,該區持續降雨並造成水災。截至 7 月下旬,官方統計超過 150 人死亡及失蹤,經濟損失超過 1,400 億人民幣。7 月上旬日本九州亦受大雨影響,超過 70 人死亡。

Jun to Jul: Affected by a persistent stationary front, heavy rain caused widespread floods in the Yangtze basin. Official numbers as of late July indicated that more than 150 were dead or missing, and the economic damage amounted to more than 140 billion yuan. Kyushu, Japan was also affected by heavy rains in early July, with more than 70 deaths.
47 33.33
13

12月21日: 本月出現土星合木星的天文現象,全球各地於日落後可看到土星及木星幾乎重疊,兩者於 12 月 21 日只有 6 角分的距離,是自 1623 年以來最接近的一次。

Dec 21: The astronomical event Jupiter-Saturn conjunction was visible in December. The two planets appeared to be very close to each other as seen from the Earth after sunset. The angular distance between Jupiter and Saturn was 6 arcminutes on December 21, the closest since 1623.
45 31.91
14

6月20日: 受熱浪侵襲,位於西伯利亞的上揚斯基錄得 38 度的高溫,如被核實的話將打破北極圈內的高溫紀錄。

Jun 20: A temperature of 38 degrees was recorded at Verkhoyansk in Siberia amidst a heatwave. If verified, this would break the maximum temperature record within the arctic circle.
41 29.08
15

2月13日: 受高空擾動影響,香港早上有雷雨,天文台發出黃色暴雨警告,是歷來第二早。

Feb 13: Affected by an upper-air disturbance, there were some stormy showers in Hong Kong in the morning. The Amber Rainstorm Warning was issued, which was the second earliest in the year on record.
37 26.24
16

8月16日: 美國加州的死亡谷錄得高溫 54.4 度,如被核實的話將為地球上有可靠儀器以來錄得的最高溫度。

Aug 16: A temperature of 54.4 degrees was recorded at Death Valley in the US state of California. If verified, this would be the highest reliably measured temperature anywhere on Earth.
30 21.28
(=16)

9月23日: 世界氣象組織確認北半球的低溫紀錄為格陵蘭於 1991 年 12 月 22 日錄得的 -69.6 度,超越先前於俄羅斯上揚斯基及奧伊米亞康錄得的 -67.8 度。

Sep 23: The World Meteorological Organization verified the temperature of -69.6 degrees recorded in Greenland on December 22, 1991 as the coldest ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere, surpassing the previous record of -67.8 degrees recorded in the Russian towns of Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon.
30 21.28
18

10至11月: 受季候風及熱帶氣旋蓮花、浪卡、沙德爾、莫拉菲、天鵝、艾濤及環高登陸或靠近影響,越南中部及柬埔寨於 10 至 11 月發生水災,超過 200 人死亡。

Oct to Nov: Affected by the monsoon and successive approaches of tropical cyclones Linfa, Nangka, Saudel, Molave, Goni, Etau and Vamco, floods occurred in central Vietnam and Cambodia in October and November, leading to at least 200 deaths.
27 19.15
19

7月24日: 台北錄得 39.7 度氣溫,是該站 124 年來的最高溫度,亦平了全台灣的第三高紀錄。

Jul 24: A temperature of 39.7 degrees was recorded at Taipei, the highest in 124 years. This was also the third highest temperature reading over Taiwan.
26 18.44
20

5月30日: 美國太空探索技術公司 SpaceX 載人天龍號太空船在甘迺迪太空中心成功發射,將兩名太空人送往國際太空站。這是自 2011 年來美國首次於國內將人送上太空。

May 30: American space technology company SpaceX launched the Crew Dragon spacecraft, sending two astronauts to the International Space Station from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This was the first manned mission launched from within the United States since 2011.
25 17.73
21

2月15日: 風暴丹尼斯侵襲英國、挪威及瑞典等地,它在冰島以南時最低中心氣壓約為 920 百帕,為有紀錄以來其中一個最強的溫帶氣旋。

Feb 15: Storm Dennis struck the UK, Norway, Sweden and some other European countries. It reached an estimated minimum central pressure of 920 hPa south of Iceland, and was one of the strongest extratropical cyclones in recorded history.
23 16.31
22

8月底至9月初: 熱帶氣旋巴威、美莎克及海神接連靠近朝鮮半島,兩韓受災嚴重。

Late Aug to early Sep: Tropical cyclones Bavi, Maysak and Haishen approached the Korean Peninsula in quick succession, causing severe damage in both South and North Korea.

21 14.89
23

5月20日: 熱帶氣旋 Amphan 登陸印度東部,該地及孟加拉受災嚴重,造成超過 100 人死亡,經濟損失達破北印度洋紀錄的 130 億美元。

May 20: Tropical cyclone Amphan made landfall in eastern India, inflicting severe damage there and in Bangladesh. More than 100 people were killed, and economic losses reached a record-breaking 13 billion US dollars in the North Indian Ocean.
19 13.48
24

9月18日: 位於地中海的氣旋 Ianos 登陸希臘,登陸時風速約為每小時 120 公里,亦有近似風眼的結構。

Sep 18: Cyclone Ianos in the Mediterranean Sea made landfall in Greece, with estimated winds of around 120 km/h. Ianos acquired an eye-like feature at landfall.
17 12.06
(=24)

12月10日: 台灣宜蘭近岸海域發生 6.4 級地震,全島普遍有感,香港天文台亦接獲超過 10 名市民報告,是次地震於香港的烈度為修訂麥加利地震烈度表的第 III 度。

Dec 10: A magnitude 6.4 earthquake occurred near the coast of Yilan, Taiwan. The quake was generally felt over the island, and in Hong Kong more than 10 reports of felt tremor were received. The earthquake was estimated to have an intensity of III on the Modified Mercalli scale in Hong Kong.
17 12.06
26

8月: 美國加州山火不斷,情況於 8 月尤為嚴重,由 8 月 16 至 17 日的閃電導致的山火影響範圍達 40 萬公頃。

Aug: The ongoing wildfires in the US state of California reached its peak intensity in August. Fires sparked by lightning strikes on August 16-17 burned more than 400,000 hectares of land.
16 11.35
27

4月初: 熱帶氣旋 Harold 成為自 2015 年以來登陸瓦努阿圖的最強風暴,此前渡輪 MV Taimareho 遇上與 Harold 相關的巨浪及大風,27 人被拋進海中。

Early Apr: Tropical cyclone Harold became the strongest storm since 2015 to hit Vanuatu. Prior to its landfall, 27 passengers on the ferry MV Taimareho were thrown overboard by the waves and high winds associated with Harold.
15 10.64
28

8月27日: 四級颶風 Laura 登陸美國路易斯安那州,是自 1856 年來登陸該州的最強風暴。Laura 於美國及安地列斯群島共造成 77 人死亡,經濟損失超過 160 億美元。

Aug 27: Category 4 hurricane Laura made landfall in the US state of Louisiana as the strongest storm there since 1856. 77 lives were lost in the US and the Antilles, and economic losses reached 16 billion US dollars.
13 9.22
(=28)

11月24日: 中國的月球探測器嫦娥五號發射升空,其後於月球表面進行採樣,並於 12 月 17 日返回地球,令中國成為繼美國及前蘇聯後第三個成功於月球採樣的國家。

Nov 24: China's Chang'e 5 spacecraft was launched. It later collected lunar samples and returned to the Earth on December 17. China thus became the third country to be able to return samples collected from the Moon, after the United States and the former Soviet Union.
13 9.22
30

3月2至3日: 美國田納西州遭受多個龍捲風連環吹襲,共造成 25 人死亡。其中一個龍捲風吹正該州首府納什維爾,在美國歷史上造成最大損失的龍捲風中排行第 6。

Mar 2 to 3: A tornado outbreak affected the US state of Tennessee, leading to 25 deaths. One of the tornados struck the state capital Nashville, and was the 6th costliest tornado in US history.
11 7.80
(=30)

11月初至中: 尼加拉瓜及洪都拉斯先後受四級颶風 Eta 及五級颶風 Iota 侵襲,其中 Eta 於加勒比海及墨西哥灣徘徊多時,繼而趨向美國佛羅里達州。兩氣旋於中北美洲共造成超過 400 人死亡及失蹤,估計經濟損失達 90 億美元。

Early to mid Nov: Hurricanes Eta (category 4) and Iota (category 5) impacted Nicaragua and Honduras in quick succession. In particular, Eta lingered around the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico for a long time, before finally moving towards Florida, US. More than 400 people died or went missing in North and Central America due to the two storms. The economic damage was estimated to be in excess of 9 billion US dollars.
11 7.80
32

11月19日: 位於波多黎各的阿雷西博天文台於運作 57 年後退役,該望遠鏡的接收器其後於 12 月 1 日墜落並砸毀反射盤。

Nov 19: The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was decommissioned after 57 years in service. Shortly after, the telescope's receiver collapsed into and destroyed the reflector dish on December 1.
9 6.38
(=32)

12月23日: 青海省日出前出現「火流星」現象,一顆小行星於空中燃燒並發出巨大的光芒,黑夜被照亮至猶如白晝一樣。該星體最後於囊謙縣著陸,是自 2013 年俄羅斯車里雅賓斯克的隕石墜落以來最大規模的一次著陸。

Dec 23: A bolide was observed in the Qinghai province before sunrise. The sky was lit up to as bright as daytime while the asteroid burned in the atmosphere. The object eventually landed in Nangqen county. It was the largest landfalling event since the one in Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013.
9 6.38
34

1月12日: 位於菲律賓的塔阿爾火山爆發,火山灰影響馬尼拉等城市,航班及日常生活受影響。

Jan 12: The Taal Volcano in the Philippines erupted, sending ashes towards Manila and nearby cities. Flights were suspended and the daily lives of the residents were disrupted.
6 4.26
(=34)

10月30日: 愛琴海東部、希臘薩摩斯島附近發生 7.0 級地震,土耳其西部廣泛有感,造成接近 120 人死亡,超過 1,000 人受傷。

Oct 30: A magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurred in eastern Aegean Sea, near the Greek island of Samos. The tremor was widely felt in western Turkey. Almost 120 people died in the incident, while more than 1,000 were injured.
6 4.26
36

12月17日: 熱帶氣旋 Yasa 增強為五級強度後稍為減弱並登陸斐濟,該國受災嚴重,多處停水停電且通訊中斷,至少 4 人死亡。

Dec 17: Tropical cyclone Yasa weakened slightly after strengthening into category 5, and seriously impacted Fiji with access to water, electricity and communication cut off in many areas. At least 4 people were killed.
5 3.55
37

1月: 印尼首都雅加達及巴西東南部分別於 1 月 1 日及 1 月中下旬出現水災,造成最少 66 及 70 人死亡。

Jan: Floods in Jakarta, Indonesia on January 1 and in southeastern Brazil since mid-January killed at least 66 and 70, respectively.
1 0.71
(=37)

1月24日: 土耳其東部埃拉澤省發生 6.7 級地震,造成 41 人死亡,超過 1,600 人受傷。

Jan 24: A magnitude 6.7 earthquake occurred in the eastern Turkish province of Elazig, killing 41 and injuring more than 1,600.
1 0.71
(=37)

6月23日: 墨西哥瓦哈卡州發生 7.4 級地震,共 10 人死亡,23 人受傷。

Jun 23: A magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred in Oaxaca, Mexico. 10 people were killed and 23 were injured.
1 0.71

Notes 備註 :

1Each person can vote once on up to 13 events. Valid votes in "Others" category have been included. 每人可投票一次,最多投選 13 項事件。投選 "其他" 一欄的有效票數已計算在內。
2Percentage of total voters. 佔總投票人數的百分比。

Ranking trend for the top 3 events 頭三位事件走勢

The following graph illustrates the ranking trend of the eventual top 3 events as the election progressed. Due to the significant ranking variability in the early stages of the election, the graph only shows the progress after the 11th vote has been cast.

以下圖表顯示獲得首三位事件於選舉進行期間的排名走勢。由於選舉初期事件名次較為波動,下圖只顯示第 11 票往後的走勢。

Related Information for the Top Three Events 首三名事件相關資訊

Here we provide links to the resources related to the top three events in this election. 在這裡我們提供有關選舉中獲得首三名的事件之資料。

[Rank #1 第一位] #9 Increasing Gale or Storm Signal brought by Typhoon Higos | 颱風海高斯襲港、九號烈風或暴風風力增強信號生效

 

[Rank #2 第二位] Coldest day of the year as the temperature at HKO dropped to 8.1 degrees | 天文台氣溫下降至 8.1 度成全年最低

 

[Rank #3 第三位] #8 Gale or Storm Signal issued as Tropical Storm Nangka crossed the South China Sea | 熱帶風暴浪卡橫過南海、八號烈風或暴風信號生效

 

Finally, we would like to thank all voters for their participation, who together contributed to its success. See you next year!

最後,我們在此對所有投票人士致謝,令本選舉得以圓滿完成。明年再見!

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Thu Oct 06 2022 16:09:06 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Sun Jan 16 2022

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