2021 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉
"Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of 2021" Election

投票期 Voting period: 2022/01/01 00:00 至 to 2022/01/14 23:59

2021 年天文、地理及氣象大事選舉 'Astronomical, Geographic and Meteorological Events of 2021' Election

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歡迎!請投選你心目中 2021 年度的天文、地理及氣象大事 (最少1項,最多14項):本選舉已於2022年1月14日23時59分結束。
Welcome! Please select at most 14 events that, in your opinion, are the most significant in 2021: The poll was closed on 2022/01/14 at 23:59.

1月份 :: January
8日 / 8th: 一股強烈東北季候風影響香港,天文台氣溫下降至 7.7 度,是 2020-21 年冬季最低溫度,大帽山氣溫更跌至 -2.5 度。寒潮持續達數天,打鼓嶺於 1 月 13 日錄得氣溫 -0.9 度,是該站的最低紀錄,新界部分地區結霜。A strong surge of northeast monsoon affected Hong Kong. The temperature at the HK Observatory dropped to 7.7 degrees, the lowest in the 2020-21 winter session. A minimum temperature of -2.5 degrees was recorded at Tai Mo Shan. The cold surge lasted for several days, and Ta Kwu Ling registered a temperature of -0.9 degrees on January 13, the lowest on record for that station. Frost was observed in parts of the New Territories.
9日 / 9th: 溫帶氣旋 Filomena 侵襲歐洲,葡萄牙及西班牙受大雪影響,其中馬德里單日錄得超過 50 厘米降雪,是 50 年來最高的紀錄。Extratropical cyclone Filomena struck Europe, dumping massive amounts of snow in Portugal and Spain. The daily snowfall of more than 50 cm in Madrid was the highest in 50 years.
15日 / 15th: 印尼蘇拉威西島發生 6.2 級淺層地震,當地受嚴重破壞,並造成 108 人死亡,3 人失蹤。A magnitude 6.2 shallow earthquake struck western Sulawesi of Indonesia, inflicting severe damage in the area. 108 people were killed, and 3 went missing in the incident.
2月份 :: February
2月中旬 / Mid-Feb: 北美洲受強烈寒潮侵襲,美國、加拿大多地氣溫比正常低超過 20 度。冷空氣深入美國南部,德州達拉斯錄得 -19 度的低溫,而暴風雪令美國多地出現停電。A severe cold snap affected North America, with temperatures in many places in the US and Canada being more than 20 degrees below normal. The cold air mass reached southern US; a minimum temperature of -19 degrees was recorded in Dallas, Texas. Blizzard conditions resulted in widespread power outages over the US.
2月 / Feb: 多國於去年送往火星的探測器陸續抵達,其中阿聯酋希望號及中國天問一號探測器分別於 2 月 9 日及 10 日進入火星軌道,而美國毅力號探測器於 2 月 18 日登陸火星。Rovers sent to Mars by various countries last year arrived at the planet. The Hope orbiter from the UAE and Tianwen 1 spacecraft from China entered Mars' orbit on February 9 and 10 respectively, while the Perseverance rover from the US landed on Mars on February 18.
3月份 :: March
15日 / 15th: 蒙古發生沙塵暴,造成至少 10 名牧民死亡,多人失蹤。其後沙塵暴往東推進,中國多個北方城市受影響,天空變成黃色,能見度大幅下降,規模 10 年來最大。A sandstorm in Mongolia caused the death of at least 10 herders, and many went missing. The sandstorm later propagated eastwards towards northern China. The skies in many cities turned yellow and the visibility was significantly reduced. It was the most intense sandstorm over China in 10 years.
3月 / Mar: 由於自去年起雨量持續偏低,台灣經歷自 1947 年以來最嚴重的旱災,部分地區需要限制用水。至 5 月底降雨轉趨頻密,乾旱狀態才得以舒緩。Due to a lack of rainfall since last year, Taiwan experienced the most serious drought since 1947. Water rationing was implemented in some areas. The drought was relieved in late May when rain started to fall persistently in the region.
4月份 :: April
4日 / 4th: 熱帶氣旋 Seroja 為印尼及東帝汶帶來豪雨,洪水及山泥傾瀉導致超過 270 人死亡。Tropical cyclone Seroja brought heavy rain to Indonesia and East Timor. The resulting flooding and landslides led to more than 270 deaths.
4月 / Apr: 香港於 4 月出現兩次有感地震,分別為 4 月 2 日於廣東河源的 3.7 級地震,及 4 月 18 日於台灣花蓮的 6.2 級地震,其中前者天文台共接獲超過 100 名市民報告。兩次地震於香港的烈度分別為 II 及 III 度。Hong Kong experienced two felt tremors in April, arising from the earthquakes at Heyuan, Guangdong on April 2 with magnitude 3.7, and at Hualien, Taiwan on April 18 with magnitude 6.2. The HK Observatory received more than 100 reports from the public for the former event. The two earthquakes were respectively rated intensity II and III on the modified Mercalli scale in Hong Kong.
5月份 :: May
9日 / 9th: 長征五號 B 火箭殘餘部分墜落於馬爾代夫附近的印度洋,是近 30 年來最大型自由進入地球的飛行器,事件引發部分國家對其安全憂慮。Remnants of the Chinese Long March-5B rocket re-entered Earth, plunging into the Indian Ocean near the Maldives. It was the largest object in 30 years to make an uncontrolled re-entry and sparked concerns in some countries over the safety of this practice.
15日 / 15th: 江蘇、湖北省出現強對流天氣,部分地區受龍捲風吹襲,至少 12 人死亡,逾百人受傷。Strong convective activities affected the provinces of Jiangsu and Hubei, with tornados observed in certain areas. At least 12 people were killed, and more than 100 were injured.
20日 / 20th: 南丫島海面早上出現水龍捲,歷時約 6 分鐘,天文台位於長洲的攝影機則拍到有漏斗雲形成。A waterspout lasting for around 6 minutes was spotted near Lamma Island. The HK Observatory's weather camera at Cheung Chau captured an image of a funnel cloud forming.
22日 / 22nd: 在甘肅省舉行的一場越野賽進行期間天氣突變,氣溫急降,造成 21 人死亡,當中包括中國越野賽頂尖選手。A rapid change in weather conditions during a cross-country race in Gansu province saw a sudden drop in temperatures, which killed 21 runners including top Chinese competitors.
22日 / 22nd: 位於剛果民主共和國的尼拉貢戈火山爆發,造成 32 人死亡,聯合國估計超過 1,000 間房屋被毀。The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo killed 32 people. The United Nations estimated that more than 1,000 homes were destroyed.
26日 / 26th: 一次月全食於香港時間傍晚發生,適逢月球處於近地點附近,其外觀較正常大,香港於晚間初段可見「超級血月」。A total lunar eclipse occurred in the evening Hong Kong Time. The moon appeared larger than normal as it was near perigee, and a 'super blood moon' was visible in Hong Kong in the early evening.
春季 / Spring: 香港經歷一個異常溫暖的春季,其中 3 月及 5 月錄得破紀錄的平均氣溫。3 月 30 及 31 日的最低氣溫達 25.3 度,5 月 21 日的低溫 29.5 度,及 5 月 23 日的高溫 36.1 度均打破各自月份的相關紀錄,而 5 月的 14 天熱夜 (日低溫達 28 度) 亦刷新當月紀錄。Hong Kong experienced an abnormally warm spring, with a record-breaking average temperature in March and May. The minimum temperature of 25.3 degrees on March 30 and 31, 29.5 degrees on May 21, and the maximum temperature of 36.1 degrees on May 23 are all new records in their respective months. A total of 14 hot nights (minimum temperature reaching 28 degrees) in May also broke the record for the month.
6月份 :: June
1日 / 1st: 低壓槽影響珠江口一帶,澳門整天天氣不穩定,曾三度發出紅色暴雨警告,更於上午 5 時發出黑色暴雨警告,而大炮台山氣象站全日錄得破紀錄的 423.2 毫米雨量。香港當天亦有大驟雨,大嶼山南部雨量達 150 毫米。A trough affected the Pearl River Estuary and the weather in Macau was unstable. The Red Rainstorm Warning was issued three times, and the warning was upgraded to Black at 5 am. A record-breaking 423.2 mm of rain was received at Fortaleza do Monte. There were also heavy showers in Hong Kong that day, with more than 150 mm of rain in southern Lantau Island.
17日 / 17th: 搭載三名航天員聶海勝、劉伯明及湯洪波的神舟十二號飛船發射升空。航天員被送到天宮太空站,期間進行兩次出艙活動,於太空逗留三個月後在 9 月 17 日返回地球。The Shenzhou 12 spacecraft was launched with three astronauts, Nie Haisheng, Liu Boming and Tang Hongbo on board. The crew was sent to the Tiangong space station and later carried out two planned spacewalks. The three astronauts returned to Earth on September 17 after staying in space for three months.
24日 / 24th: 一個達藤田 F4 級的龍捲風橫掃捷克南摩拉維亞州,是該國有紀錄以來最猛烈的龍捲風,造成 6 人死亡,超過 200 人受傷。A tornado rated F4 on the Fujita scale struck South Moravia of Czech Republic. It was the strongest tornado on record in the country, and resulted in 6 fatalities and more than 200 injuries.
28日 / 28th: 一股活躍的西南氣流影響廣東沿岸,早上大雨持續,香港天文台於上午 8 時 20 分發出黑色暴雨警告信號。由於信號發出時正值上班時間,部分市民不滿天文台的決定。Due to an active southwesterly airstream affecting coastal Guangdong, the rain in the morning was heavy and persistent. The HK Observatory issued the Black Rainstorm Warning at 8:20 am. Some members of the public criticized the Observatory's decision to issue the warning during rush hours.
29日 / 29th: 北美洲西部受異常強勁的高壓脊覆蓋而出現熱浪,加拿大卑斯省利頓村錄得氣溫 49.6 度,打破該國高溫紀錄。翌日山火波及利頓村,大部分建築物被燒毀。An exceptionally strong ridge covering western North America led to a heat wave in the region. The village of Lytton in British Columbia, Canada reached 49.6 degrees, the highest ever recorded in the country. Most buildings in the village were destroyed by wildfires a day later.
7月份 :: July
3日 / 3rd: 日本靜岡縣熱海市因暴雨而發生大規模土石流,有房屋被破壞甚至沖走,事件中 19 人喪生,9 人失蹤。A mudslide occurred in the city of Atami in Shizuoka, Japan due to heavy rain. Some homes were damaged or even swept away, leading to 19 deaths and another 9 went missing.
6日 / 6th: 一個熱帶低氣壓於呂宋海峽移近台灣西南部,而同時另一熱帶低氣壓於南海西部形成,天文台就兩個系統同時發出一號戒備信號,是自 1979 年以來首次。A tropical depression in the Luzon Strait edged closer to southwestern Taiwan when another one developed in western South China Sea. The HK Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal for both systems simultaneously, the first time since 1979.
19日 / 19th: 熱帶氣旋查帕卡於香港西南 200 公里範圍內迅速增強為颱風,天文台發出三號強風信號。查帕卡普遍為香港帶來超過 200 毫米雨量。Tropical cyclone Cempaka intensified quickly into a typhoon within 200 km southwest of Hong Kong, for which the HK Observatory issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal. Cempaka brought more than 200 mm of rain generally over Hong Kong.
7月 / Jul: 多國於本月出現水災,7 月中的歐洲洪災於德國共造成 184 人死亡,被形容為該國二戰後其中一次最致命的自然災害。河南省鄭州市於 7 月 20 至 21 日的特大水災淹沒地鐵及隧道,超過 300 人死亡。印度馬哈拉施特拉邦於 7 月 22 日開始的豪雨亦令超過 250 人死亡。Extreme rain episodes occurred in various countries. The European floods in mid-July resulted in 184 deaths in Germany, and was described as one of the deadliest natural disasters in the country since World War II. In China, severe flooding on July 20 and 21 inundated underground railway and tunnels in Zhengzhou, Henan, leading to more than 300 deaths. The Indian state of Maharashtra was also affected by heavy rainfall since July 22, killing more than 250.
8月份 :: August
3日 / 3rd: 熱帶氣旋盧碧於雷州半島以東的海域上形成後東移,三號強風信號生效。盧碧其後登陸粵閩邊界並進入台灣海峽,繼而加速並吹襲日本。Tropical cyclone Lupit moved east after its formation east of the Leizhou Peninsula, leading to the issuance of the #3 Strong Wind Signal. Lupit later made landfall near the Guangdong-Fujian border and entered the Taiwan Strait. It then accelerated towards Japan.
14日 / 14th: 海地發生 7.2 級淺層地震,當地第三大城市萊凱受災嚴重,地震共造成超過 2,200 人死亡,超過 12,000 人受傷。A magnitude 7.2 shallow earthquake struck Haiti. The third-largest city Les Cayes suffered extensive damage. The earthquake resulted in more than 2,200 deaths and 12,000 injuries.
29日 / 29th: 颶風 Ida 以四級強度登陸美國路易斯安那州,其後於內陸轉向東北移動,沿途地方受暴雨影響。事件中美國有 95 人死亡,風暴形成前的雲雨帶於委內瑞拉造成廣泛水浸,20 人喪生。Hurricane Ida made landfall in the US state of Louisiana as a category 4 system. Ida turned northeast inland, resulting in heavy rainfall along its path. 95 people died in the US due to the storm, and 20 deaths were registered in Venezuela in the floods contributed by the precursor of Ida.
8月 / Aug: 歐洲南部及北非於 7 月底及 8 月受熱浪侵襲,希臘、突尼西亞、意大利及西班牙等國錄得破紀錄高溫,其中突尼西亞凱魯萬市溫度達 50.3 度。熱浪期間希臘有大規模山火,當局相信是有人蓄意縱火造成。A heat wave struck southern Europe and northern Africa in late July and August. Record-breaking temperatures were observed in countries such as Greece, Tunisia, Italy and Spain. A temperature of 50.3 degrees was recorded at Kairouan, Tunisia. Large-scale wildfires burned in Greece amidst the heat wave; authorities believed that they were caused by arson attempts.
9月份 :: September
16日 / 16th: 香港東部有局部大驟雨,天文台於下午約一時接獲將軍澳有冰雹報告,當區全日雨量超過 100 毫米。Localized showers affected eastern parts of Hong Kong. The HK Observatory received reports of hail in Tseung Kwan O near 1 pm. The region received more than 100 mm of rain that day.
9月 / Sep: 受較強的高壓脊影響,香港 9 月錄得平均高溫 32.8 度,平均氣溫 29.7 度,平均低溫 27.8 度,均是有紀錄以來 9 月份最高。該月共有 15 天酷熱 (日高溫達 33 度),11 天熱夜 (日低溫達 28 度),同樣破 9 月紀錄。Affected by a stronger subtropical ridge than usual, Hong Kong recorded a mean maximum, average and minimum temperature of 32.8, 29.7 and 27.8 degrees respectively. These all broke the respective September records. A total of 15 very hot days (maximum temperature reaching 33 degrees) and 11 hot nights (minimum temperature reaching 28 degrees) were observed in the month, breaking the record for September as well.
10月份 :: October
3日 / 3rd: 在阿拉伯海西移的氣旋 Shaheen 罕有地以相當於一級颶風強度登陸阿曼北部,當地及伊朗南部均受災。Cyclone Shaheen, which moved west in the Arabian Sea, made a rare landfall in northern Oman at an intensity equivalent to a category 1 hurricane. Oman and southern Iran suffered damage from the cyclone.
5日 / 5th: 氣象學家真鍋淑郎及克勞斯·哈塞爾曼獲得諾貝爾物理學獎,以表彰他們對「建構物理形式的地球氣候模型,量化可變性並確切地預測全球暖化」的貢獻,是該獎首次頒予氣象學家。物理學獎亦同時頒予理論物理學家喬治·帕里西。Climatologists Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions in the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming. This was the first time the Prize was awarded to climate scientists. The Prize was also shared by theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi.
7日 / 7th: 巴基斯坦俾路支斯坦凌晨發生 5.9 級地震,造成 27 人死亡,約 300 人受傷,15 人失蹤。A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Balochistan, Pakistan in the small hours, resulting in 27 deaths and around 300 injuries. 15 people went missing.
8至14日 / 8th to 14th: 熱帶氣旋獅子山及圓規接連影響香港,其中獅子山於 10 月 8 日靠近海南島期間令香港風雨交加,天文台一度發出黑色暴雨警告,翌日更發出八號烈風或暴風信號,獅子山距港仍逾 500 公里。10 月 8 日的 329.7 毫米雨量打破 10 月份單日紀錄,而天文台信號更替的決定惹起爭議。10 月 12 日,氣旋圓規橫過南海,八號信號於取消 60 小時多後再度生效,而是次生效時間超過 23 小時。圓規掠過期間適逢漲潮,部分低窪地區出現水浸。Tropical cyclones Lionrock and Kompasu affected Hong Kong in succession. There were strong winds and heavy rain in Hong Kong on October 8 as Lionrock approached Hainan; the Black Rainstorm Warning was in force. The #8 Gale or Storm Signal was issued the day after when Lionrock was still over 500 km from Hong Kong. 329.7 mm of rain was observed on October 8, breaking the October daily rainfall record. The HK Observatory's decision on signal changes sparked controversies. Tropical cyclone Kompasu crossed the South China Sea on October 12, and the #8 Signal was once again issued in just over 60 hours after its cancellation. The Signal remained in force for over 23 hours. Kompasu's approach coincided with high tide, and there was flooding at some low-lying areas.
16日 / 16th: 搭載三名航天員翟志剛、王亞平及葉光富的神舟十三號飛船發射升空,王亞平於 11 月 7 日成為中國第一位進行出艙活動的女太空人。三人將於太空生活半年,預計於 2022 年 4 月返回地球。The Shenzhou 13 spacecraft was launched with three astronauts, Zhai Zhigang, Wang Yaping and Ye Guangfu on board. On November 7, Wang Yaping became the first female Chinese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. The crew will spend 6 months in space and is expected to return to Earth in April 2022.
11月份 :: November
13日 / 13th: 在蘇格蘭格拉斯哥舉行的第 26 屆聯合國氣候變化大會結束,會上通過《格拉斯哥氣候公約》,同意維持《巴黎協定》中控制全球暖化的目標。The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference held at Glasgow, Scotland came to a close. Participating countries agreed to the Glasgow Climate Pact, reaffirming the temperature goal set in the Paris Agreement to limit the rate of global warming.
15日 / 15th: 北美太平洋西北地區因持續降雨而出現水浸,主要影響範圍為加拿大溫哥華島,大溫哥華地區及菲沙河谷,以及美國華盛頓州北部。由於道路被浸,當地連接其他城市的交通大受影響,估計受保險覆蓋的損失達 4.5 億加元。Flooding caused by persistent rainfall affected parts of The Pacific Northwest in North America, including Vancouver Island, Greater Vancouver Region, the Fraser Valley in Canada, and parts of northern Washington in the US. The transportation in the area was seriously disrupted as most major routes were flooded. Insured losses were estimated to exceed 450 million Canadian dollars.
12月份 :: December
4日 / 4th: 印尼塞梅魯火山爆發,造成 48 人死亡,超過 100 人受傷,近一萬人失去家園。A volcanic eruption at Mount Semeru in Indonesia resulted in 48 deaths and more than 100 injuries. About 10,000 people were displaced by the eruption.
10日 / 10th: 美國南部罕有地於 12 月受一場大型龍捲風侵襲,最猛烈的一個達 EF4 級,阿肯色、密蘇里、伊利諾伊、田納西及肯塔基州遭到不同程度的破壞,事件共造成 89 人死亡,其中單在肯塔基州已有 75 人遇難。Southern US was struck by a rare tornado outbreak in December. The strongest one was rated EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale. The states of Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee and Kentucky suffered damage of various degrees. 89 lives were lost in the event, including 75 in Kentucky alone.
20日 / 20th: 熱帶氣旋雷伊於 12 月 16 及 17 日橫過菲律賓中部,造成至少 400 人死亡。雷伊其後於南海再度增強,成為自有可靠衛星觀測以來該區於 12 月的首個超強颱風 (香港天文台分級)。風暴於南海西部轉向,天文台發出一號戒備信號,是歷來年內最遲發出熱帶氣旋警告信號的一次,而雷伊在冬至日曾距港只有 140 公里。Tropical cyclone Rai crossed central Philippines on December 16 and 17, resulting in more than 400 deaths. Rai re-intensified in the South China Sea and became the first December super typhoon (HK Observatory classification) in the Sea since reliable satellite observations began. As the storm recurved in western South China Sea, the HK Observatory issued the #1 Standby Signal, the latest in a year on record. At one point, Rai was only 140 km from Hong Kong on the day of winter solstice.
25日 / 25th: 耗資接近 100 億美元的詹士·韋伯太空望遠鏡於法屬圭亞那的太空中心發射升空,其靈敏度比哈勃太空望遠鏡高約 100 倍,長遠將取代後者進行太空觀測。The James Webb Space Telescope is launched from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana. Costing almost 10 billion US dollars, it is about 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope, and is expected to replace the latter in the long run to conduct space observations.
其他 :: Others
其他 (請註明。你不需要填寫全部三個空格;請留空未用盡的格子。注意這裡每一個已填寫的空格將分別計進總數內,例如若你在此填寫2個空格,你將只可以剔選其餘12件事件) :: Others (Please specify. You don't need to fill in all three text boxes; just leave unanswered cells blank. Note that filled boxes here are counted individually towards the total number of events selected, e.g. if you fill in 2 blanks here, you can choose only 12 more events from the list.)
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參與網站 (以英文字母排序):
Participating websites (in alphabetical order):

香港天氣觀測站 Hong Kong Weather Watch香港天氣觀測站 Hong Kong Weather Watch
天氣預警 Met Warn天氣預警 Met Warn
現代氣象局 Modern Observatory現代氣象局 Modern Observatory
1097 天氣網誌 Weblog 10971097 天氣網誌 Weblog 1097