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202402W (MALIKSI 馬力斯) - Profile 檔案

(First draft issued on June 4, 2024)
(初稿於 2024 年 6 月 4 日發出)

Brief profile of MALIKSI | 馬力斯小檔案:

JTWC number 聯合颱風警報中心 (JTWC) 號碼 02W
International number 國際編號 2402
Period of existence 生存時期^ 2024/05/30 17 HKT - 2024/06/01 14 HKT
Maximum 1-minute wind (JTWC) JTWC 一分鐘平均最高中心風速

30 knots 節 (Tropical Depression 熱帶低氣壓)

Minimum pressure (JTWC) JTWC 最低氣壓 995 hPa 百帕
Highest TC signal by HKO
3 (Strong Wind Signal 強風信號)
Closest point of approach by HKO
NW 210 km (real-time warning 實時報告)
Time of closest approach by HKO

2024/06/01 15 HKT (real-time warning 實時報告)

Lowest pressure recorded at HKO
TBA 稍後公佈

^Refers to the period between the HK Observatory's first and last bulletins for the tropical cyclone (with at least tropical depression intensity). For storms formed/dissipated/transformed into an extratropical cyclone outside the area bounded by 7-36°N and 100-140°E, information from the JTWC will be used instead.
^即香港天文台為該熱帶氣旋(熱帶低氣壓級或更高)作出發佈的時期。至於在北緯 7 至 36 度、東經 100 至 140 度外形成/消散/轉化為溫帶氣旋的風暴,本網將參考聯合颱風警報中心的資料。

TC signals in Hong Kong* 香港曾經生效的熱帶氣旋警告*:

Date and time
Distance from HK
Predicted movement
Max. 10-min winds
2024/05/30 (THU) 17:40 HKT SSW 640 km Slowly → N at 10 km/h 45 km/h (25 knots, TD)
2024/05/31 (FRI) 16:40 HKT SW 290 km Slowly → N at 15 km/h 65 km/h (35 knots, TS)
2024/06/01 (SAT) 16:40 HKT NW 220 km NE at 22 km/h 45 km/h (25 knots, TD)
2024/06/01 (SAT) 17:40 HKT** --- --- 40 km/h (20 knots, LPA)

*Based on the information from real-time tropical cyclone warning bulletins.

**The Strong Monsoon Signal was issued at 17:42 HKT.
**強烈季候風信號下午 5 時 42 分發出。

Percentile Ranks 百分等級:

TBA 稍後公佈

IR imagery animation 紅外線雲圖動畫:

TC track from HKWW 本站的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TC Track

TC track(s) from HKO 天文台的熱帶氣旋路徑圖:

TBA 稍後公佈

Past HKWW Bulletins 本站發佈

Please click here for bulletins on this tropical cyclone. 請按這裡

Storm Development Overview 風暴發展概覽

Unless otherwise stated, all times below are in Hong Kong Standard Time (UTC+8)
除非特別註明,下文時間均為香港標準時間(協調世界時加 8 小時)

A convective patch developed in central South China Sea in late May as a result of the convergence of an easterly airstream prevailing in southern China and the southwest monsoon in the South China Sea. On May 29, the convective area gained spiraling characteristics and became tropical disturbance 94W. Due to the favourable sea temperatures and vertical wind shear environment, 94W consolidated over the next day; it was upgraded into a tropical depression by the NMC and HKO at 5 pm May 30. The JMA issued a gale warning for the system at 2 pm the same day, while the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert at 2 am May 31.

At the time of 94W's formation, a broad subtropical ridge was covering the northwestern Pacific Ocean and parts of the South China Sea. Located in the western periphery of the ridge, 94W was predicted by numerical models to move northwards towards western Guangdong or the Pearl River Estuary, and may intensify. It would then turn eastwards after landfall as it transitioned to the northern side of the ridge.

On May 31, 94W started to pick up speed and moved northwards. The JTWC upgraded it into tropical depression 02W at 8 am, while the JMA upgraded it into a tropical storm at 2 pm, naming it MALIKSI. MALIKSI's spiraling cloud bands tightened during the day, although the low-level circulation centre was initially exposed as it raced northwards. The storm's convective activities were more vigorous in its southern side. There was a westward jog in MALIKSI's track that night, which brought it further away from the Pearl River Estuary.

As a minimal tropical storm, MALIKSI made landfall at about 1 am June 1 near the city of Yangjiang in western Guangdong. It started to move north-northeast inland as it gradually weakened. The NMC stopped tracking the storm at 5 pm as its low-level circulation centre became difficult to identify.

5 月下旬,活躍於華南一帶的偏東氣流與南海的西南季候風匯聚,一團對流雲帶於南海中部發展。29 日,該對流雲帶螺旋性漸增,成為熱帶擾動 94W。受惠於有利的海溫及垂直風切變環境,94W 於翌日整合,中國中央氣象台及香港天文台於 30 日下午 5 時將其升格為熱帶低氣壓。日本氣象廳於同日下午 2 時對該系統發佈烈風警告,而聯合颱風警報中心則於 31 日上午 2 時發出熱帶氣旋形成警報。

94W 形成之時,一道廣闊副熱帶高壓脊正覆蓋西北太平洋及南海部分地區。94W 位處該脊西沿,數值模式預料該擾動將北移至廣東西部或珠江口,並有機會增強。登陸後,預測該系統將因到達副高北部而東轉。

5 月 31 日,94W 有所加速北移。聯合颱風警報中心於上午 8 時將其升格為熱帶低氣壓 02W,而日本氣象廳則於下午 2 時將其升格為熱帶風暴,命名為馬力斯。馬力斯的螺旋雲帶於當天漸趨緊密,但風暴北移初時其低層環流中心曾外露。風暴南部的對流活動較為猛烈。當晚,馬力斯的路徑稍為西偏,令其與珠江口的距離有所增加。

馬力斯於 6 月 1 日上午 1 時左右在廣東西部的陽江市一帶登陸,當時它的強度為熱帶風暴下限。登陸後風暴開始向東北偏東移動,並逐漸減弱。中國中央氣象台於當日下午 5 時表示已很難確定馬力斯的環流中心位置,將停止為其作出發佈。

Weather in Hong Kong During Approach 風暴影響時香港天氣狀況

Link to relevant HKO weather report bulletins: 30/531/51/6

Prior to MALIKSI's formation, Hong Kong was under the influence of a relatively strong easterly airstream. It was windy on May 29 with occasional strong force winds at offshore locations and strong to gale force winds on high ground. Although MALIKSI strengthened on May 30 and 31, local winds actually moderated.

In the special weather alert issued by the HK Observatory at 3:31 pm May 30, it was mentioned that the broad area of low pressure in central to northern South China Sea would develop into a tropical depression soon, and that the #1 Standby Signal would be issued at 5:40 pm. When the #1 Signal was issued, MALIKSI was about 640 km south-southwest of Hong Kong. It was generally cloudy in Hong Kong that day with a few showers.

As MALIKSI moved closer to southern China on May 31, its rainbands started to affect the territory. Near daybreak, the HK Observatory said it would assess the need for the #3 Signal in the afternoon. While local winds were generally weak, a broader rainband arrived near 3 pm. Many places saw a brief period of heavy rain, and the Amber Rainstorm Warning was in force between 3:30 and 5 pm. The HK Observatory upgraded MALIKSI into a tropical storm at 3 pm and issued the #3 Strong Wind Signal at 4:40 pm, when MALIKSI was located around 290 km southwest of Hong Kong. It was mentioned that MALIKSI's extensive intense rainbands to the south would gradually affect the vicinity of the Pearl River Estuary after the storm made landfall in western Guangdong around midnight June 1. Gale force winds were expected on high ground, while the chance of issuing a higher tropical cyclone signal was deemed rather low. The handling of empty cargoes at various cargo terminals were suspended from 8 pm.

After the rainbands crossed Hong Kong, the weather was rather stable in the evening of May 31. The territory saw a general increase in wind speeds in the small hours to the morning of June 1, as MALIKSI turned north-northeast upon landfall. The wind direction turned south and locations in western Hong Kong generally experienced stronger winds. Examples of locations that registered strong winds include Chek Lap Kok, Cheung Chau, Green Island, Sha Chau, Stanley, Tap Mun, Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island. Sustained gales were recorded at Ngong Ping after daybreak, with gusts up to storm force. As another strong rainband approached the territory, the Amber Rainstorm Warning was in force again between 3:25 and 5:40 am.

In its 2 pm (June 1) tropical cyclone bulletin, the HK Observatory mentioned that local winds had shown signs of weakening in the past couple of hours. At a distance of 210 km, MALIKSI would then gradually move away from the territory. The #1 Standby Signal was issued at 4:40 pm, and it was cancelled altogether one hour later as MALIKSI weakened into an area of low pressure. Local wind direction had veered to the southwest by that time, but remained rather strong with persistent gales at Ngong Ping and strong force winds in Chek Lap Kok and Cheung Chau, two of the eight reference stations. The HK Observatory therefore issued the Strong Monsoon Signal at 5:42 pm, mentioning that strong winds were expected in Hong Kong with gusts that would occasionally reach gale force.

The rainbands associated with MALIKSI's remnants continued to affect Hong Kong in the night of June 1 and the small hours of June 2. Winds finally moderated that morning, and the Strong Monsoon Signal was cancelled at 6 am June 2. The weather improved during the day with sunny periods, but a trough of low pressure returned on June 3, resulting in unstable weather in the territory.

馬力斯形成前,香港受一道相對較強的偏東氣流影響,5 月 29 日風勢頗大,離岸間中吹強風,高地更吹強至烈風。雖然馬力斯於 30 及 31 日增強,但本地風勢有所緩和。

香港天文台於 5 月 30 日下午 3 時 31 分的特別天氣提示中表示,位於南海中北部的廣闊低壓區將於短期內發展成一熱帶低氣壓,會於下午 5 時 40 分發出一號戒備信號。該信號發出時,馬力斯集結於香港西南偏南約 640 公里。當天香港大致多雲,並有幾陣驟雨。

隨著馬力斯於 5 月 31 日靠近華南,其雨帶開始影響本港。天文台於破曉時份表示將於當天下午評估是否需要改發三號強風信號。本地風勢普遍較弱,但一道較廣闊的雨帶於下午 3 時左右到達,多地曾短暫下大雨,黃色暴雨警告於下午 3 時 30 分至 5 時之間生效。天文台於下午 3 時將馬力斯升格為熱帶風暴,並於下午 4 時 40 分改發三號強風信號,當時馬力斯位於香港西南約 290 公里。天文台表示,馬力斯南側的廣闊強雨帶會於風暴在 6 月 1 日午夜左右登陸廣東後逐漸影響珠江口一帶,高地預料吹烈風,而改發更高信號的機會甚低。多個貨櫃碼頭宣佈將於當日下午 8 時起暫停吉櫃交收服務。

雨帶橫過後,5 月 31 日晚天氣大致穩定。馬力斯登陸後轉向東北偏北移動,本地風勢普遍於 6 月 1 日凌晨至早上增強。風向轉為偏南,香港西部地區風勢較大。赤鱲角、長洲、青洲、沙洲、赤柱、塔門、大老山及橫瀾島等地吹強風;破曉後昂坪持續風力達烈風程度,陣風更達暴風級別。另一道雨帶於凌晨靠近,黃色暴雨警告於上午 3 時 25 分至 5 時 40 分之間再次生效。

天文台於 6 月 1 日下午 2 時的熱帶氣旋警報中指出,本港風勢於過去一兩小時有減弱跡象。當時馬力斯距離香港約 210 公里,將逐漸遠離。一號戒備信號於下午 4 時 40 分發出,並於一小時後因馬力斯減弱為低壓區而取消。本地風向已轉為西南,但仍然較為強勁;昂坪依然持續吹烈風,八個參考測風站中有兩個(赤鱲角、長洲)吹強風。天文台因此於下午 5 時 42 分發出強烈季候風信號,並表示預料本港吹強風,陣風間中達烈風程度。

與馬力斯殘餘相關的雨帶於 6 月 1 日晚及 2 日凌晨繼續影響香港。風勢最終於 2 日早上緩和,強烈季候風信號於上午 6 時取消。當日天氣轉好,部分時間有陽光,但隨著一道低壓槽於 3 日靠近,本港天氣再度轉為不穩定。

Image Gallery 圖片庫

Figure 1 - Steering flow chart at 8 am May 31
圖 1 - 5 月 31 日上午 8 時之駛流場分佈圖

Figure 2 - Numerical model forecasts at 8 am May 31
圖 2 - 5 月 31 日上午 8 時之數值模式預報

Figure 3 - Satellite image of MALIKSI in the morning of May 31
圖 3 - 5 月 31 日早上馬力斯之衛星雲圖

Figure 4 - Wind field analysis at 10:24 am May 31
圖 4 - 5 月 31 日上午 10 時 24 分之風場掃描圖

Figure 5 - Forecast tracks from various official agencies on May 31
圖 5 - 5 月 31 日各官方氣象台之預測路徑圖

Figure 6 - Satellite image showing MALIKSI making landfall in western Guangdong
圖 6 - 衛星雲圖顯示馬力斯於廣東西部登陸

Figure 7 - Radar image at 4 pm June 1
圖 7 - 6 月 1 日下午 4 時之雷達圖

Figure 8 - Local weather element distribution map at 3 pm June 1 (strong winds or above are represented by red wind barbs)
圖 8 - 6 月 1 日下午 3 時之本港天氣元素分布圖(強風或以上風速以紅色風矢標示)

Figure 9 - Wind speed time series at Cheung Chau, Green Island, Lau Fau Shan and Ngong Ping (top to bottom) between June 1 and 2
圖 9 - 長洲、青洲、流浮山及昂坪(上至下)於 6 月 1 至 2 日之風速時間序列圖

Figure 10 - Daily rainfall distribution maps for May 31 (left) and June 1 (right)
圖 10 - 5 月 31 日(左)及 6 月 1 日(右)之雨量分佈圖

Winds Recorded at Reference Stations 參考站所錄得的風速

The following table lists the maximum 10-minute average (sustained) wind speed recorded while tropical cyclone signals were in force. In some occasions, it is possible that the strongest winds were not recorded when the highest signal was in force.

下表列出各站於熱帶氣旋警告信號生效時所錄得的最高 10 分鐘平均(持續)風速,留意此風速不一定於最高信號生效期間錄得。

Max. 10-min avg. wind speed
Beaufort classification
Chek Lap Kok 赤鱲角* 48 km/h STRONG 強風
Cheung Chau 長洲 46 km/h STRONG 強風
Kai Tak 啟德** Below "fresh" threshold of 31 km/h 低於「清勁」下限的 31 km/h
Lau Fau Shan 流浮山 45 km/h STRONG 強風
Sai Kung 西貢 40 km/h Fresh 清勁
Sha Tin 沙田 Below "fresh" threshold of 31 km/h 低於「清勁」下限的 31 km/h
Ta Kwu Ling 打鼓嶺
Tsing Yi (SHL) 青衣蜆殼油庫 32 km/h Fresh 清勁

Number of stations recording at least STRONG force (force 6 - 7) winds:
錄得 強風 (6 - 7 級) 或更高風速的站數:
Number of stations recording at least GALE force (force 8 - 9) winds:
錄得 烈風 (8 - 9 級) 或更高風速的站數:
Number of stations recording at least STORM force (force 10 - 11) winds:
錄得 暴風 (10 - 11 級) 或更高風速的站數:
Number of stations recording HURRICANE force (force 12) winds:
錄得 颶風 (12 級) 風速的站數:

*The anemometer at Chek Lap Kok was relocated to the new North Runway (third runway) on March 25, 2024. [HKO announcement]
*赤鱲角的風速計自 2024 年 3 月 25 日起遷移至新北跑道(第三跑道)。[香港天文台相關公佈]

**A wind speed of 33 km/h (fresh) was recorded at Kai Tak at around 8 pm June 1, more than two hours after the cancellation of the #1 Signal.
**啟德測風站於 6 月 1 日下午約 8 時(一號信號取消後兩個多小時)錄得每小時 33 公里風速,屬清勁級別。

Charts and Figures 各項數據

Table 1: Track data from HKWW:
表一 : 香港天氣觀測站之路徑資料

YYMMDDZZ Lat Long Wind
24053006 174N1122E 025
24053012 176N1122E 025
24053018 185N1122E 025
24053100 196N1123E 030
24053106 203N1120E 035
24053112 207N1117E 035
24053118 216N1117E 035
24060100 224N1122E 030
24060106 234N1125E 025
24060112 240N1135E 020

Table 2: Maximum gust and hourly average wind speed recorded in Hong Kong from HKO:
表二 : 香港天文台公佈的各站最高每小時平均風力和陣風數據 (英文)

TBA 稍後公佈

Table 3: Rainfall (in millimetres) contributed by MALIKSI from HKO (figures in brackets are based on incomplete hourly data):
表三 : 香港天文台公佈的各站雨量資料 (英文) (方括號內之數據由不完整之每小時資料擷取)

TBA 稍後公佈

Last Accessed 最近訪問日期: Fri Jun 21 2024 22:56:21 HKT
Last Modified 最近修訂日期: Tue Jun 04 2024